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How to alalyze medical terminologies and terms


How to alalyze medical terminologies and terms

Most of us – even who are considered as fluent in English- face or had faced this problem of getting used to medical English or terminologies , how ever lot of efforts must be given from us mostly who study medicine in Arabic…
Here are some advise on books you can start with:
- start with simple books like : Biology (Campbell), Anatomy& physiology (trtoral,Guyton ), microbiology (Burton), Immunology (Nairn).
- If your started slowly and felt like idiot DO NOT PANIC! Shocked It suppose to start that way and keep in mind that every hour you spend in this will make the next hour even more easier till you be completely ready to read more complex books.
- Keep in mind is that the concern here is not how to learn English but to start learning medical English so if you spend too much time reading that doesn’t make you ready to read 16th century novels.
- When you face new words ( that would be more than 40% of every page) try not to use dictionary! You would only make it useless reading; try to analyze the word and get to understand it by your own and if you then needed the dictionary so hard then use only E:E one.

BUT before you start with this it would be helpful if you start learning a few fundamentals of how medical terminology is constructed.

Most of us know that there are three basic parts of lot of medical terms:
A word root ( usually in the middle)
A prefix (at the beginning)
A suffix (comes at the end)

A) The root: central meaning.
B) The prefix: identifies some subdivision or part of the central meaning
C) ]The suffix[/]: modifies the central meaning as to what or who is interacting with it or what is happening to it.

Here is an example: MYOCARDITIS

Prefix: myo= muscle
Root: card = heart
Suffix: it is = inflammation.

It might look like long process but with a few times of analyzing it, it will become as easy as saying good morning.

Now why wont we have some fun by doing some changes to the parts of this terms?

Prefix change:

Myocarditis = muscle layer of heart inflamed
Pericarditis = outer layer of heart inflamed
Endocarditis = inner layer of heart inflamed.

See? Not that hard!

Let’s change some suffix:

Cardiologist = a physician specializes in the heart.
Cardiomyopathy = damage to heart muscle layer
Cardiomegaly = enlargement of the heart.

So it is not that hard any more!
If you guys found it helpful I can help more by writing some prefixes and suffixes that are used in medical terms.

Eye-wink Best of luck

[eng]

[/eng]

Dania's picture
by
السنة الرابعة


wow , very useful thanx

DAM's picture
DAM


thank you DAM :o

Here are some prefixes and suffixes;
Don’t worry! You don’t have to memorize it; but you will remember the meanings by yourself, you’ll see.
Just be patient with your self:

-[ ]ectomy = to cut out (remove) appendectomy, tonsillectomy

-osis = abnormal condition cyanosis (due to cold or low oxygen)

-itis= inflammation tonsillitis, appendicitis

-otomy = to cut into tracheotomy

-ostomy = to make “a mouth “ colostomy (to make an opening in colon)

-a/an = without anemia (literally no blood but means few red cells)

Micro = small macrostomia

Mega = enlarge megacolon

Scopy = to observe colonscopy

Graphy = recording an image mammography

Gram = the x-ray image mammogram

Ology = study, specialize in cardiologist, nephrologists

Important notes:

Whenever you see these endings (graphy – graph – gram) they relate to recording an image such as (x-ray, CT, or MRI scan…..etc)

Mammography is the process of recording
Mammography is the image itself

A recording of heart activity is called an electrocardiography using an electrocardiograph
A recording of brain activity is called an electroencephalogram using an electroencephalograph.

Hope it was simple and helpful
I will post some roots meanings later on.

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanks...really thanks

zaid's picture
zaid
بعد التخرج


الله يعطيك العافية...عذبناك معنا Eye-wink

pearls-3's picture
pearls-3
بعد التخرج

Here are some roost’s meanings:
We did talk about prefix and suffix; let us now learn about organ’s roots:

Stomato = …………….mouth………….as in(stomatitis)

Dento = ………………teeth…………..as in (dentist)

Glosso/linguo = ……….tongue………..as in (glossitis, lingual nerve)

Gingivo =……………..gums…………..as in (gingivitie)

Encephalo = …………...brain…………as in (encephalitis)

Gastro = ………………stomach………as in (gastritis)

Procto = ……………..anus/rectum……as in (prctitis)

Hepato = …………….liver……………as in (hepatitis, hepatomegaly)

Nephro/rene = ………kidney…………as in (nephritis, renal artery)

Orchido = …………..testis……………as in (orchiditis)

Oophoro =…………..ovary…………..as in (oophorectomy)

Salping = …………...uteriuetubes……as in (hystosalpingogram)

Dermo = ……………skin…………….as in (dermatitis)

Masto/mammo =…….breast………….as in (mammography)

Osteo =………………bones………….as in (osteoporsis)

Cardio = ……………heart…………..as in (electrocardiogram) – my favorite word!-

Rhino = …………….nose…………..as in (rhinitis)

Hemo/emia =……….blood………….as in (hematologist, anemia)

Pneumo/pulmo=……lung…………..as in (pulmonologist) –pneumo is really hard word to say -

Now if you noticed that some organs have more than one root. That is because some of them are Greek and others are Latin.

I’m sure you noticed that the suffix “itis” is widely used, make sure you focus on that suffix because it is so important.

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanks again

zaid's picture
zaid
بعد التخرج


very helpfull thanks, i didn't know many of them. but now i do. thanks a gain.

dr.tabban's picture
dr.tabban


oh God Dania how can we thank you
you r the best
thanxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
جزاك الله كل خير

drhanadi's picture
drhanadi
طبيب مقيم


ألف شكر..

جزاكم الله كل خير..

dr_bashar_x2's picture
dr_bashar_x2


thank you all (Zaid,pearls-3,hazemhazem,dr.hanadie,dr-bashar)

there is some more infos I wan to add later on when I finish them

hope it was helpful

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة

I can assure you to like this:

Colors terms!

Leuk/o = …………….white…………..as in (leukemia)

Melan/o = ……………black…………..as in (melanoma – black tumor of the skin)

Cyan/o = …………….blue………….as in (cyanosis – blueness due to cold or hypoxia)

Xanth/o = ……………yellow…………as in (xanthoma) yellow tumor)

Now directions:

( I faced real trouble recognizing the differences between them; it is more easier after getting them like this).

Endo = ……………within, inside of………as in (endoscopy) : inspect the inside of an organ or space with a lighted instrument

Circum = ………..around………………..as in (circumcise)

Retro = ……………behind ………………as in (retrosternal – behind the breast bones-)

Trans = …………..through ………………as in (transurethral )

Intra = …………….within ……………….as in (intravenous – IV-)

Sub = ……………...below……………….as in (subclavian)

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة

( It’s really NICE work ... I have just one comment ( I’m sure it’s a spelling mistake

Eno ... you mean Endo
Reto ... Retro

Thanx Dr_Dania ... Waiting for the next time

dr.msh's picture
dr.msh
بعد التخرج

Quote:
( It’s really NICE work ... I have just one comment ( I’m sure it’s a spelling mistake

Eno ... you mean Endo
Reto ... Retro

Thanx Dr_Dania ... Waiting for the next time

thank you dr-msh I corrected the 2 words
thank you for noticing

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


Great Dania

DAM's picture
DAM

Really Great Work .

thank's Dania, God bless u !!

S-Samer's picture
S-Samer

thank you DAM, S-Samer

Now tumors!
Adding –oma (swolling) to organ and tissue word roots names tumors

Aden/o = ………………..gland……………as in (adenoma)

Lip/o = ………………….fat ………………as in (lipoma)

My/o = ………………….muscle…………..as in (myoma)

Lymph/o = ……………..lymph tissue……..as in (Lymphoma)

Carcin/o = ………………malignant………..as in (carciuoma)

I will start with circulatory system disease:

Lets make sure first to understand these few words :

Brady/tachy = ---------slow/fast--------------bradycadia (rate>60) , tachycardia (rate<100)

Angi/o = --------------vessel------------------angiograph

Veno/phlebo=---------vein--------------------- venogram, phlebitis

-stasis = ---------------to stop -------------------hemostasis (stop bleeding)

-cyte = -----------------cell(we all know that)---erythrocytes

Hem/o = --------------blood ( we mentioned it)

Cardi/o = ------------heart ( we all know)

I will mention some diseases that we all know all about but to get you more used to the English words to describe it:

I will start with MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION:
An infarction is blocking of blood flow resulting in death of muscle tissue
Yes right ( heart attack)
The blockage occurs in a coronary artery, and depending on how musch tissue dies a victim of (MI) may survive and undergo cardiac rehabilitation, strengthening the remaining heart muscle, or may die if too much muscle tissue is destroyed.

Mitral prolapse, stensis, regurgitation :

Blood flows through four chambers in the heart separated by one-way valves. A major valve is the one separating the upper and lower chambers on the left side of the heart. The left side is especially important because freshly oxygenated blood returning from the lungs is circulated out of the heart to the rest of the body. The left valve, called atrioventricular,( I know you will immedietly know the meaning in Arabic but please try not to) for the chambers it separates, is also called the mitral valve, because it is shaped like an upside down Bishop's hat, a miter. If the flaps of this valve tear away due to disease, the process is called prolapse, "a falling forward". This results in leakage and backward flow called "regurgitation". Sometimes a valve is abnormally narrow causing partial obstruction constricting flow. Stenosis means "a narrowing".

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


ممكن من فريق العمل تثبيت الموضوع لأنه بظنه مفيد و فعلا أخد مجهود

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة

Dania wrote:
ممكن من فريق العمل تثبيت الموضوع لأنه بظنه مفيد و فعلا أخد مجهود

I think so too...

zaid's picture
zaid
بعد التخرج

zaid wrote:
Dania wrote:
ممكن من فريق العمل تثبيت الموضوع لأنه بظنه مفيد و فعلا أخد مجهود

I think so too...

You can say that again ... !!
dr.msh's picture
dr.msh
بعد التخرج

some more circulatory diseases :
Arrhythmia/dysrhythmia- Abnormal heart rates and rhythms all have special names like ventricular tachycardia, fibrillation, but generically are termed arrhythmias or dysrhythmia, meaning "no rhythm" and "abnormal rhythm". There are fine distinctions between the two, but they are often used interchangeably.

[Ischemia- Sometimes the heart muscle is not getting enough blood flow, more importantly, the oxygen the blood carries is insufficient to sustain muscle which has a very high metabolic rate, and oxygen demand. The term loosely means "not quite enough blood". Typically, the patient suffers angina pain and they may think they are having a heart attack. And, they may be!

Now let’s start with Nervous system:

Cephal/o= ----------------head--------------------- ( encephalitis, anecephalic – born with out a brain!)

Mening/o = --------------membranes------------- (meningitis)

Myel/o = -----------------spinal cord -------------- (myelogram)

Dys = -------------------difficult, painful abnormal---- (dyslexia – difficulty reading)

Cele = ----------------hernia, abnormal, protrusion of structure out of normal anatomical position -------------- (Meningomyelocele)

Pathy = --------------disease, abnormality ----------- (encephalopathy)

Plasia = ---------------development, formation --------(hyperplasia , aplasia )

Plegia = ----------------paralysis ----------------------- ( hemiplegia, quandriplegia )

I will continue later today God willing. But before I do if you are interesting in reading in English nervous system's books and diseases make sure to memorize these, it will make it way easier.

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanx for useful topic

bullet1230


thank you dr-bullet it took me real long time
I wish they stick it

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanx alot Dania
جزاك الله خيراً

Aramis's picture
Aramis
طبيب مقيم

Some of nervous diseases :
I put them in easy medical language for the 1st three years students:

Multiple Sclerosis- MS is a disease of unknown cause that manifests as multiple hard plaques of degeneration of the insulating layer of nerve fibers in the central nervous system. The loss of insulation allows "short circuiting" of nerve impulses. Depending upon where the degeneration occurs, patients may suffer paralysis, sensory disturbances or blindness.

Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)- the fancy name for a "stroke" Shocked . A blood vessel in the brain may burst causing internal bleeding. Or, a clot may arise in a brain blood vessel (a thrombus), or arise elsewhere (embolus) and travel to get stuck in a brain vessel which then deprives brain tissue of oxygen. Depending upon the area of the brain involved, the patient may suffer paralysis, loss of speech or loss of vision.

Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA)- "Ischemia" was introduced previously in the circulatory diseases. It literally means "not quite enough blood". A short period of insufficient blood supply to the brain can have the same signs and symptoms as a stroke such as weakness in an arm, a partial loss of vision, but the problem lasts less than 24 hours. People who get TIA's are at increased risk of having a stroke in the future.

Epilepsy- a Greek word for "seizure". Convulsions are another term used. Seizures may have many causes and not all seizures are epilepsy. High fevers in young children may trigger seizures which are short in duration, easily controlled and, typically, have no permanent aftereffects. Epilepsy is a specific condition which may occur at any age, seizures are more intense, longer lasting in duration, and recur with some frequency. The condition may be controlled with medication, or if unresponsive to drugs, may require surgery.

Now of course I didn’t put all the pre-suff-root words meanings but if you faced any new word that wasn’t represented here you can go to
http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/
It is awesome! Believe me…

I will start with the digestive system.

Eye-wink Good Luck

thanks aramis

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanks Dania!

zaid's picture
zaid
بعد التخرج


thanks Dania!

zaid's picture
zaid
بعد التخرج

here are some:
Gastr/o ----------- Stomach-------------------- Gastritis, Gastrectomy

Chol/e------------------- Gall, bile-------------------- Cholecystitis, cholecystectomy
(inflammation of, removal of gallbladder)

Cyst/o------------ Bladder, sac----------

Emes/o----------- Vomit---------------------- Emesis (vomiting), emetic
(stimulating vomiting), antiemetic (stopping vomiting)

Lith/o--------------- Stone----------------- Cholelithotomy (removal of gall stones)

Lapar/o---------------- Abdominal wall---------- Laparotomy (cutting into the abdomen)

-centesis---------- To puncture---------------- Abdominocentesis (puncturing and draining)

-tripsy-------------- To crush----------------- Cholelithotripsy (smashing gall stones with sound waves)

-rrhea-------------- Flow, discharge----------- Diarrhea

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)- Severe "heartburn" in laymen's language. Weakness of the valve between the esophagus and stomach may allow stomach acid to reflux (regurgitate, backup) into the esophagus and irritate and inflame the lining. This results in chest pain which can mimic that of angina (pain of cardiac ischemia or an MI).

Jaundice- Literally means "yellow" in French. Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes from a backup of bile metabolic by-products from the blood into body tissues. May result from blockage of the ducts draining bile from the liver into the intestines or excessive breakdown of red blood cells. Hemoglobin from destroyed RBC' s is broken down, and in part, ends up in bile secretions.
Cirrhosis- Literally, "orange-yellow" in Greek. A degenerative disease of the liver that often develops in chronic alcoholics, but can have other causes. The name refers to the gross appearance of the organ

Crohn's Disease- a chronic inflammatory disease primarily of the bowel. Typical symptoms are abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea. There may also be rectal bleeding that can lead to anemia. Special X-rays and tests are needed to differentiate Crohn's from other diseases with similar symptoms.

,Tomorrow we will start with how to analyz respiratory system's terminologies

Ramadan mobarak Eye-wink
[/]

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة



Respiratory System

Rhin/o-------- Nose----------------------- Rhinitis, rhinorrhea (inflammation of and "runny" nose)

Laryng/o------------- Larynx, "voice box"----------------- Laryngotomy, Laryngectomy (cutting into, surgically removing the larynx)

Trache/o------------------ Trachea, "windpipe"---------------- Tracheotomy, tracheostomy (temporary and permanent openings)

Bronch/o------------ Lung air passageways--------------- Bronchoscopy (looking into the bronchi)

Pne/u, -----------pnea Breath, air, lung------------------------ Tachypnea, dyspnea, apnea (accelerated, difficult/painful, cessation of breathing)

Pulmo/o----------------- Lung ------------------------ Pulmonary artery

-ptysis------------------ Spitting (coughing) -------------------- Hemoptysis (spitting or coughing up blood from lungs)

-plasty--------------- Reconstruction-------------------- Rhinoplasty (surgical reconstruction of nose)

Dania's picture
Dania
السنة الرابعة


thanks... Smiling

zaid's picture
zaid
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