Gross pathological specimens from patients with aortic stenosis of three different etiologies. Left, Bicuspid aortic stenosis. Two cusps (anterior and posterior) are present. Arrow indicates a calcified raphe. Middle, Rheumatic aortic stenosis. Two commissures are fused, in addition to prominent fibrosis and calcification. Right, Degenerative aortic stenosis. Extensive calcification is present in the valve pockets, with preservation of the commissures. Courtesy, Dr. William D. Edwards, Mayo Clinic.
Wang,A. & Bashmore,T. (Eds.) (2009) Valvular Heart Disease. New York (US) : Humana Press p.167
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