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زرع الدم Blood Cultures |

المعلومة

Gram-negative organisms, fungi, and anaerobes are considered to be pathogenic until proven otherwise.

إن كلاً من العضيات سلبية الغرام والفطور واللاهوائيات؛ ممرضة حتى يثبت العكس.

المرجع

Clinician’s Pocket Reference, 9th Edition(2002)

توصيل خمجية 2 |

المعلومة

Match the clinical description with the most likely etiologic agent.
a. Candida albicans
b. Aspergillus flavus
c. Coccidioides immitis
d. Herpes simplex type 1
e. Herpes simplex type 2
f. Hantavirus
g. Tropheryma whippelii
h. Coxsackievirus B
i. Histoplasma capsulatum
j. Human parvovirus
k. Cryptococcus neoformans

1. An HIV-positive patient develops fever and dysphagia; endoscopic
biopsy shows yeast and hyphae.

2. A 50-year-old develops sudden onset of bizarre behavior. CSF shows
80 lymphocytes; magnetic resonance imaging shows temporal lobe abnormalities.

3 A patient with a previous history of tuberculosis now complains of
hemoptysis. There is an upper lobe mass with a cavity and a crescentshaped
air-fluid level.

4. A Filipino patient develops a pulmonary nodule after travel through
the American Southwest.
5. A 35-year-old male who had a fever, cough, and sore throat develops
chest pain after several days with diffuse ST segment elevations on ECG.
6. Overwhelming pneumonia with adult respiratory distress syndrome
occurs on an Indian reservation in the Southwest following exposure to
deer mice.

7. A child develops an erythematous rash appearing as a slapped cheek.

المرجع

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Opportunistic infections in AIDS |

المعلومة

Opportunistic infections in AIDS

Bacterial : Tuberculosis, M. avium–intracellulare complex.
Viral : Herpes simplex, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (JC virus).
Fungal : Thrush (Candida albicans), cryptococcosis (cryptococcal meningitis), histoplasmosis, Pneumocystis pneumonia.
Protozoan : Toxoplasmosis, cryptosporidiosis.

المرجع

First Aid for the USMLE STEP1 -2007


الأوساط الخاصة لزراعة بعض الأحياء الدقيقة .. |

المعلومة

- H. influenzae --> Chocolate agar with factors V (NAD) and X (hematin).
- N. gonorrhoeae --> Thayer–Martin media.
- B. pertussis --> Bordet–Gengou (potato) agar.
- C. diphtheriae --> Tellurite agar, Loffler's medium, Blood agar.
- M. tuberculosis --> Löwenstein–Jensen agar.
- Lactose-fermenting enterics --> Pink colonies on MacConkey's agar (e.g., Escherichia, Klebsiella, and Enterobacter).
- Legionella --> Charcoal yeast extract agar buffered with increased iron and cysteine.
- Fungi --> Sabouraud's agar

.

المرجع

first aid 4 usmle step 1

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