كيف؟

HOW TO :

هو قسم في دليل حكيم لطالب الطب يُعنى بتقديم الخطوات اللازمة لإنجاز بعض الأعمل الورقية الخاصة بطالب الطب أو الطبيب أو الأستاذ من حيث :

الـ CV .
الـ Covering Letters.
الـ Peresonal statments .
الـ Recommendation Letters .

و المزيد المفيد ..

1- How to Write a Medical CV

إذا كنت في سنينِّك الأخيرة:

فأنت و لا شك بحاجة غلى كتابة سيرتك الذاتية ...

أما إذا كنت في سنيِّنك الأولى:

فأنت و لا شك أكثر حاجة لخوض تجربة كتابة سيرتك الذاتية ...

لأن هذه التجربة ستعلمك الكثير الكثير ...
وستوجه نشاطاتك وأعمالك ودراستك لما يعود بالخير والنفع عليك وعلى الآخرين ...
انتهز هذه الفرصة ...

فحكيم يقدم لك دليل مبسطاً عن كتابة السيرة الذاتية مرفقاً بالعديد من النماذج الجاهزة ...

والمزيد المفيد ...

1- General Concepts about CVs


General Concepts about CVs

Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam.
Last updated: 13/7/2007

Source: Internet Search



  • What is a CV?
  • Purpose of this Document
  • Before You Begin
  • When to Begin Writing


  • What is a CV ?

  • The word Curriculum Vitae literally translated means the story of your life. The words Curriculum Vitae are usually abbreviated to CV or C.V.
  • Your CV is a very important document as it is a kind of advertising you and that is why it should concentrate on the positive points you have and avoid mentioning negative aspects of your personality. By which it represents the best you have to offer if you do not want to miss out a job or an opportunity which you see as 'perfect' for you.
  • These days' employers often receive a lot of CVs for each advertised position. Each vacation can often attract hundreds of applicants. So your CV has to be just that little bit special to stand out if you want to obtain interviews. The good news (for you) is that most people do not know how to write a CV and only spend a short time preparing a CV. Writing professional CVs is a skill, which these people have not learnt.
  • In the following sections we will teach you how to write professional CVs and show you a number of CV examples as an introduction to the art of CV writing.
  • Purpose of this document

  • Medical school is actually the first step to getting a job: a residency of your choice. Your curriculum vitae (CV; "course of life") is one of the vehicles that can help you achieve that goal. Not only will you need it for residency program directors to read, but also when you ask for letters of recommendation from your preceptors. It is paramount that you do a good job to attain the residency goal of your wishes.
  • This document will hopefully offer some valuable information regarding what to do and what to avoid in your quest to write the perfect documents.
  • Before You Begin

  • Before you begin doing all this work, it is important to know why you are writing a CV.
  • As mentioned before, medical school is really preparation for you to get a job, i.e., a residency.
  • Like any job application process, the employer has little knowledge about you.
  • You need to make yourself stand out from the crowd by "selling" yourself through academic records, letters or recommendation, and your CV and PS before they meet you.
  • When approaching this task, think in terms of what residency program directors want in a potential resident. Fulfill his curiosity and satisfy the director on paper that you are the person for the program.
  • It is no wonder so many companies have made a living simply by helping people write CVs.
  • CVs can help or hurt you as an applicant. If you do a good job, then you are playing on level field with everyone else. It is now up to you to make that extra effort to stand out through content and format of your CV.
  • When to Begin Writing

  • You can begin writing now . Yes, even if you are reading this as a first year medical student, you can start thinking about what you want to have in your CV and work toward fulfilling those goals.
  • You will need to constantly update your CV as your take on activities throughout medical school. It is perfectly fine to have too much written down and then having to delete some of the less pertinent activities. By the time you need to write a CV, most of your work will be toward making it look good instead of figuring out what to say.
  • 2- Word-processing and printing

    Word-processing and printing

    Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam.
    Last updated: 13/7/2007



    • Introduction
    • What Typeface to Use
    • How to Print the Final Product
    • What to Do After You Are Done Writing

    Introduction

    - Your CV should be produced using a modern word-processing package, such as Microsoft Word and printed on a high quality laser printer.

    - It is not really good enough these days to produce your CV on a typewriter and it will make you look very unprofessional, out of date and out of touch with the modern world.

    - If you do not have access to this technology, or using a computer is one of your worst nightmares, then you will have to pay someone to do this for you. If you get someone else to prepare your CV make sure they print it out on a laser printer.

    What Typeface to Use

    - Your CV should look neat and tidy with all the information easy to find.
    - There are conventions for a medical CV so don't be too creative with style and layout.
    - Believe it or not, there is a right typeface and a wrong typeface to use for these documents.
    - In general, stay conservative, but not courier 10 point. It is thought that the only time you would want to use courier 10 is when writing a legal brief.
    - It is well known that the serif typeface is much easier to read compared to sans serif. A serif is a characteristic feature of roman typefaces, signifying the small terminal stroke drawn at a right or oblique angle across the arm, stem, or tail of a letter. When writing for busy, sometimes tired readers, it behooves you to make your documents easy to read. Whichever style you choose, make sure the size is adequate so anyone can easily read it.
    - Also, avoid the use of ALL CAPS, all bold, or all italics, and excessive underlining when writing these documents. Only use them when you absolutely need to and only when they enhance the readability of your documents. No matter what you do, keep in mind that the bottom line you wish to achieve is easy readability.
    - Use the tab key rather than the space bar to indent information to create a neat effect. Placing the dates at the left hand side, with the rest of the information 'tabbed' in an inch or so, is often an effective way of setting the information out neatly and where the details are easy to pick out.

    How to Print the Final Product

    - After working hard on your documents, the last thing you want to do is to present yourself using cheap 20 pound white bond paper. Spend just a few dollars and print your documents on matching single solid-colored paper and envelope. Parchment style is favored the, but you have to find one which suits your tastes.
    - In other words, you should use good quality paper, preferably 100gram weight and you should also use this paper for writing any letters on.
    - You can use brilliant white paper or if you want to be distinctive and different you might try cream or vellum paper.
    - When you are sending your CV to someone you should always send it in an A4 envelope rather than folding it.
    - Remember, don't go wild and get fancy patterned paper. Keep in mind that your reader will most likely be of the conservative set. You can be creative after you get into that residency program.
    - Also, It is highly recommended to use a laser printer, not a bubble jet or ink jet printer. Again, you deserve to be shown in the best possible light. If you don't have access to a laser printer or a computer, you might consider asking a friend or going to a local print shop and use their printers.
    - Dot matrix or inkjet printers are not really good enough and the ink from an inkjet tends to smudge fairly easily. Always ask for a proof copy of your CV so that you can check that it meets your needs.
    - Lastly, if you use a watermarked paper, print on the side of the document which will show the watermark in the correct orientation when your document is read. This is a very minute point but it makes for a "perfect" document once you are done.

    What to Do After You Are Done Writing

    - Have lots of people proof read it and take their comments with a grain of salt - you may know what is best for the specialty to which you are applying.
    - Use correct grammar and spelling - check and double check it!
    - Include a cover letter. Put it in the envelope as the first sheet and send it with your other application materials for a particular program.(see Covering Letters)
    - Include a self-addressed stamped return "application complete" card if the program to which you are applying does not have one already done for you.

    3- What to Include

    What to Include

    Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam.
    Last updated: 13/7/2007



    • Introduction
    • What information can you include in your CV?
    • More details
    • How do I get started?


    • Introduction

      - Although there is no single "correct" format for a CV, there are certain things that you should include.
      - Look at sample CVs to decide for yourself what format(s) you wish to use and what you wish to include.
      - Content will be variable, depending on your experiences.
      - Show off your best side. List only those things which make you "shine".
      - You may have too much to list. Compartmentalize and make it neatly fit onto the page.
      - Your entries under "Hobbies / Interests" section is usually used as a springboard for interview / conversation opener. Someone says "I can not tell you how many times I was asked about my Yellow Labrador and snow monoskiing. Also, one interviewer questioned me about amateur radio and asked if I could explain to him how analog cellular phone switching works".

      What information can you include in your CV?

    • Professional, Vocational or Research Objective
    • Summary of Qualifications
    • Professional Licenses or Certifications
    • Education including Post Graduate, Graduate and Undergraduate Degrees and Studies
    • Listing of Relevant Course work to Match Career or Academic Objective
    • Educational or Professional Honors or Awards
    • Scientific or Academic Research, Laboratory Experience and Related Skills
    • Description of Thesis or Dissertation, Papers Written, Publications
    • Academic or Professional Presentations
    • Related Extracurricular Activities, Professional and Association Memberships
    • Community Involvement
    • Work Experience - Paid or Volunteer
    • Technical and Specialized Skills such as Computer Programming or
    • Laboratory Instrumentation
    • Interests – Future Academic or Professional Goals
    • Travel / Exposure to Cultural Experiences
    • Foreign Language Skills
    • Additional Information that May Support Objective or Qualifications
    • More details

      MAIN SECTIONS OF A MEDICAL CV

      This section will teach you how to prepare student / graduate CVs.
      Generally you will find the layout described here will work for you. Please feel free to add other sections as required or change the ordering of later sections to suit your skills and abilities.


      Personal

    • Name
    • Address
    • Date of birth
    • Nationality
    • Later you will need to include in this section GMC registration number and registration date
    • Medical Defence Union number

    • Profile/Summary

      This should be a short summary of your experience, skills and abilities, and be contained in four to six lines of text. Only list the attributes that will be of interest to an employer; do not include irrelevancies.


      Education/Qualifications

    • University Medical degree Awards Clinical grades Prizes & Scholarships Intercalated degree
    • School A levels & GCSEs Prizes & Awards
    • Research
    • Publication (Vancouver style: author, the full title, the title of the journal or book, the place of publication and the publisher - books only, the year, volume, page numbers) if the findings are being published in a learned journal or presented as a poster at a conference.
    • Electives/SSUs
      When }
      Where } Description
      What }
      Who with }
      - Give the details answering the above and highlight any skills, both clinical and transferable, that you have gained as a result.
      - Only list the most important qualifications.
      - If you are a graduate you do not have to list all your previous courses unless they are directly relevant to the job you are applying for.
      - This can be part of a Special Study Unit (SSU) or your intercalated degree project

    • Achievements

      - A lot of students/graduates won't have an achievements section, because you won't have anything to write here.
      - If you can think of some achievements please list 3 to 6 achievements which you feel will be in line with your next position.
      - Do not list achievements which are not in line with what you want to do next.
      - Bullet point your achievements to make them stand out. Start with the strongest point in your favor and then work backwards from there.


      Experience

      - This should be in reverse chronological order starting with your most recent job and working backwards. You only need to include the year you started and the year you finished each job.
      - When you are describing your experience for each position you should start with the strongest point in your favor and then work backwards.
      - If you have a lot of points to put under one specific job you may want to break this description into two or more sections.
      - You could break up this section into responsibilities and achievements.
      - Make sure you stress your responsibilities and achievements under each job which will be useful in your next job, but do not repeat information in your CV as this will just bore the reader.


      Extra Curricular activities

      - Keep this part fairly short, but make sure you list any current positions of responsibility.
      - If you do not currently have any management responsibility and you are applying for a management position you may want to include positions of responsibility that you have held over the last few years, e.g. Captain of a local football team.
      - Selectors often look at extracurricular activities to assess the whole person and differentiate between individual medical students.
      - Mention the level of achievement you have reached and specific things you have done, in order to indicate your commitment to this activity.


      Interests & Hobbies

      - Don't just list your interests; demonstrate how they developed qualities which will improve your ability as a doctor.
      - Leisure activities, particularly organized ones where you took a major part, can often develop the qualities you will need when working.


      Other Skills( Languages and Computer Skills)

      This can include languages, IT or other non-clinical skills.
      - List any computer skills you have, including the make and type of equipment you are familiar with, the software and operating system used e.g. Microsoft Windows 98, Microsoft Office 97.
      - If you have foreign language skills list them and indicate whether your skills are spoken, written, business or technical. Please also indicate your level of fluency: fluent, good working knowledge, etc.


      Career plans / Career Aim

      - You may not have a clear idea of which specialty you wish to enter at this stage.
      - This is quite normal, but some outline of how you see yourself developing is needed.
      - Write down your career aim which shows how ambitious you are and the kind of work you are looking for your future.


      Referees

      - Remember to contact them and include a job description and recent CV to help them.
      - Tutors and Consultants from your electives/SSUs are potential referees.
      - You should include two referees, one of which should be an academic reference, while the second reference could be from an employer you have worked for.
      - The postcode should normally be included in the address

      How do I get started?

      - Writing a curriculum vitae can seem overwhelming but can be made easier by organizing your background.
      - To begin, put each of the headings listed above--and any others that are relevant--at the top of several sheets of paper (using a computer makes this even easier). Once you've done that then begin filling in your information for topics such as those listed above.

      4- General CV writing tips

      General CV Writing Tips

      Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam.
      Last updated: 13/7/2007




      • Some Guidelines and What You Might Include
      • What makes a CV stand out?
      • What should you leave out?
      • Why are CVs rejected?


      Some Guidelines and What You Might Include

      o These days you can write your CV in the first person (i.e. I have) or the third person (i.e. he/she has). However, you do not need to use 'I', 'he' or 'she' in a CV because its use is implied.

      o Do mention things you are good at, but do not go over the top. You can oversell yourself.

      o Don't mention things that you are bad at or say negative things about yourself in your CV.

      o Make sure that the CV you write conjures up the right image of you and your skills, capabilities and achievements. Truthfulness is very important in writing CVs or any official application, if you do not match the picture you have painted with your CV at the interview, then your application will not be taken further.

      o Be careful when you use abbreviations - they can be misunderstood.

      o If you are not happy with your CV or you only seem to get rejection letters, then please get a professional CV writing service to write it for you. Yes, you will have to pay for it. But, it could save you a lot of time, lead to you getting less rejection letters and hopefully you should get an interview that much quick.

      o Titles and duties say nothing about performance. Tell the residency director what you can bring to the program that is unique and worthy of consideration.

      o Quantify what you are "selling" by actual projects done, services performed, or papers published.

      o Use underline and italics carefully.

      o Conservative approach is key.

      o Be consistent in your format. If your listing is in reverse chronologic order, then all sections of the CV should be that way. Don't switch back and forth. I would recommend listing them in reverse chronological order as your most recent accomplishments are usually more relevant than something done in college.

      o Do NOT lie about what you have done or your background / hobbies / interests - be able to substantiate your claims in all aspects of the application process. (This is obvious.)

      o Once you have figured out the content of your CV, work with the arrangement to achieve visual balance to the page. Spacing around the page should be approximately 1". Make it look "clean" and legible, not cluttered.
      o Although it should not be perfectly symmetrical, your CV should appear balanced at first glance.

      o Yes, it's true. The first page gets the longest look; however, don't break your neck trying to fit everything on one page. Carefully select what you want to put on page one.

      o Some categories listed on the examples may not be applicable to you. Simply ignore those categories and include relevant ones in your CV.

      o Unusual experiences should not be ignored. If appropriate, list under Extracurricular Activities, Projects, or Leadership Experience.

      Some other things to include, in addition to the usual stuff:

      o Volunteer activities and memberships
      o Computer skills
      o Special Projects and assignments
      o Seminars and workshops attended
      o Unique Externships
      o Pager/voice/fax/e-mail/web page address

      o Remember to be descriptive

      - When describing your background, be descriptive, use numbers and paint a broad range of your experience.
      - For example, compare the following section from Sandra's before curriculum vitae. It is representative of what the rest of her C.V. looked like.

      Professional Goal: Nurse Practitioner in rural setting.

      Education: June 1996 -- Bachelor of Science in Nursing, University of Utah

      Employment: August 1972 – Present
      Staff Nurse - Duties include primary care of patients.
      Harborview Medical Center

      June 1988 - August 1990
      Staff Nurse - Member of the IV Team.
      Harborview Medical Center

      Now compare the after curriculum vitae, shown below, after taking care of the descriptive way of writing CV. Which one does a better job of pulling together the best of Sandra's qualifications for acceptance into a Nurse Practitioner program? This program specialized in training of Nurse Practitioners for rural community service.

      Objective and Summary of Qualifications

      Seeking acceptance into a Nurse Practitioner Program with goal of providing rural community service utilizing my extensive primary background.

      Over 18 years Registered Nursing experience includes

      • Providing full-range of nursing care to patients and families of all ages from economically and culturally diverse populations.
      • Management in a department serving over 30,000 patients annually.
      • Training and supervising over 40 R.N.'s; assuming direct responsibility for total patient care; narcotics control, assessment and risk management.
      • Bachelor of Science in Nursing with Honors, University of Utah 1972

      As you can see, Sandra's after C.V. starts off much stronger and summarizes her top skills at a glance. You may be thinking, "But, I don't have any valuable work experience." If that's true, then follow a similar strategy but instead list whatever academic, volunteer or extra curricular activities that form a foundation of skills or knowledge that relate to and support your objective. The section from Sandra's C.V. shown above was then followed by many of the topics listed earlier on this page.
      When applying to academic programs it's wise to analyze the program's brochures and look for key words and phrases to integrate into your C.V. These same strategies should be applied when preparing a C.V. for internal promotions or employment.

      5- CVs Related Staff

      CVs Related Staff

      Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam.
      Last updated: 13/7/2007



      • What makes a CV stand out?
      • What should you leave out?
      • Why are CVs rejected?
      • Finally

      • What makes a CV stand out?

        You'll generate a better response with your curriculum vitae if it is well organized and is packed with relevant information to match and support your professional, academic or research objective.
        Preparing effective CV's presents a unique challenge due to length, which can make them boring and result in important data being buried or lost in such a long document. As a result, prioritizing your top skills and experience to be presented in the first or uppermost section of your C.V. makes sense. Then detail additional educational, employment or academic experience.
        In this way you will maximize important criteria which you do not want to be overlooked by academic or hiring committees.


        What should you leave out?

        • Any sort of failure - exams, marriages, etc.
        • Fancy patterns/borders - these detract from your presentation
        • Title pages, binders and folders are usually unnecessary and can be off-putting (though if you are doing a special presentation, enclosing your CV in a binder may look more impressive)
        • Leave out age (put in date of birth instead), weight, height, health, or any other personal information that is irrelevant to your application.
        • Do not use poor quality photocopies of your CV - they make it look as though you are sending off your CV to lots of companies and that you may not be too bothered who you work for.

        Why are CVs rejected?

        First impression matters; if your CV does not attract the reader's attention in the first 20-30 seconds then your chances of being accepted are greatly reduced. An employer may have a hundred or more CVs to look through and probably only a couple of hours in which to make their selection. So put the most important achievements at the start of your CV.
        What an employer really wants to know is why they should accept you for the job. For this reason a short summary of your capabilities and/or a list of your major achievements can often be a good idea, but please be careful that you do not oversell yourself.

        1. Poor visual layout
        The visual layout of your CV is very important. Even though the wording you use may be correct, if people cannot find the information they want quickly they will move on to someone else's CV. You should use plenty of 'white' space in your CV and appropriate headings and section breaks.
        Always use a word-processor. Never use a typewriter as you will look old fashioned and out of date. Use good quality A4 paper, preferably 100gram for both your CV and cover letter.

        2. Length of CV
        It is usually best to try and keep your CV to two pages of A4, unless someone specifically asks you for a longer CV. If you cannot keep your CV to this length then you probably have not understood an employer's requirements. Employers do not want to know your whole life history - just enough to decide whether they should interview you or not.

        3. Organizing the information on your CV
        If your CV is not well organized then the reader will find it hard to follow and will not be able to build up a picture of you quickly. Remember the reader will not spend very long looking at your CV - so if they cannot find what they want they will not bother to read any further.

        4. Overwritten - long paragraphs and sentences
        This makes it difficult to read quickly - try and keep your sentences short and punchy and use bullet points to break up the text under section headings.

        5. Too little information
        A lot of people do not include enough details about their previous experience and an employer therefore does not have enough information - they will therefore have to reject your application.

        6. Not results orientated
        You need to shout about your achievements. Please remember that your CV is your sales document to an employer. If it does not tell an employer why they should employ you then it has failed. An employer will only want to employ you if they can see a benefit in it for themselves. So do tell them the benefits of employing you.

        7. Misspellings, typographical errors, poor grammar
        Your CV should be carefully checked for such errors before you send it out to employers. Tiny errors in your CV can detract from an otherwise good CV and make you look lazy or careless - not the sort of qualities you want to portray to an employer. As you will probably be 'blind' to these errors you should get someone else to check your CV for grammar and spelling errors.

        Finally

        - A well developed, general CV can be a useful reference document, but to really stand out from the crowd, you need to tailor your CV for each job.
        - Remember that your CV will need a covering letter, to introduce yourself and summarize the main points you hope will attract the employer.

        6- CV - Samples

        You can download 5 CVs samples so they might become a springboard you may rely on when writing your CV.

        guid 1

        guid 2

        Sample 1 a

        sample 1 b

        Sample 1 c

        Sample 2

        Sample 3

        2- How to Write a Covering Letter

        How to Write a Covering Letter

        Provided by: Maamoun Salam, Bilal Khawam
        Last updated: 18/7/2007
        Source: Internet Search

        What is a covering letter
        Content

        Tell the employer
        How should a covering letter be laid out?
        Format and Main Body:

        Paragraph 1 – Why you are writing
        Step 1 - Introduce yourself
        Step 2 - Explain why you are making this application
        Paragraph 2 – What you can offer them
        Step 3 – You need to do a bit of self selling
        Paragraph 3 – Summary and next step
        Sept 4- Ending the letter

        Disclosing personal information
        Tips to remember
        Applying by email
        One final point

        Idea What is a Covering Letters?

        - Every time that you send out your CV you will need to send out a cover letter with it, whether you are sending your CV in response to an advert or direct to an employer or recruiter. This cover letter needs to tell the person you are sending it to why they should read your CV.

        - A covering letter needs to say a lot more than just: 'Here is my CV!' which is all some people seem to think a covering letter should say. It needs to tell the person why you are writing to him and outline why you are the ideal candidate for the job. You need to pick out the highlights from your CV that are relevant to this specific application.

        - You will probably spend much effort and time on producing your very best CV – maybe to such an extent you will be really be amazed at what you have to offer and how well you have presented it in your CV.

        - But… a poor Covering Letter… or, worse still, none at all can mean that the reader simply doesn’t even read your CV! All good organizations will be staffed with very good and therefore busy people. They will often need to get a pile of applications down from say 50 to 5 to interview for 1 vacancy in a very short time. This means that you only get one chance at making an impression. Initially that may be just about 60 seconds. This sounds brutal – particularly after you’ve spent weeks on your application – but it is reality. So don’t throw all your hard work away by attaching a poor covering letter.

        Idea Content

        Arrow Tell the employer:

        • who you are.
        • what you are applying for and where you saw it advertised if applicable.
        • why you want the job or opportunity and why you are attracted to the organization.
        • how you feel that your qualifications and experience make you a suitable candidate.
        • what you want them to do for you, e.g. ask about the possibility of arranging an interview or a visit (this will depend on your circumstances and whether you are making a speculative application or responding to an advertised vacancy).
        • What you hope will happen next, e.g. a polite, positive closing statement, saying you will telephone to follow up your letter or that you look forward to hearing from them.
        • By the end of the letter the employer should be really impressed by what you have to offer and be encouraged to find out more from your CV or application form.

        Arrow How should a covering letter be laid out?

        Your letter should usually adhere to the following layout:

        Your contact details
        - This should include your name, address, telephone number and email address if you have one.
        - Remember make it easy for the employer to contact you
        - Your address and contact details usually on the right side at the top.

        Employer/agency details
        - This should include whom the letter is going to, company name and full address.
        - If you know the name of the person e.g. if it is mentioned in the advertisement then
        use it.
        - If no particular name was mentioned use a department title e.g. Personnel manager
        or Managing director.
        - The employer's name and address usually on the left side.

        Date
        - You should use long date format in full e.g. 27th April 2006 and not 27/4/06

        Salutation & Opening
        - If you know the name use it e.g. Dear Mr Smith. If you don’t know, use Dear Sir/Madam.
        - It is preferable to use a name.
        - The company’s web site is often a good place to search for the appropriate
        individual.
        - A reference number for the job (if you know it) and/or the job title.

        Letter title
        - Centre and bold the text. This will enable the addressee to know immediately that this is an application.

        The main body of the letter,
        - Justified to the left hand margin, with a line between paragraphs:
        Paragraph 1 – Why you are writing
        Paragraph 2 – What you can offer them
        Paragraph 3 – Summary and next step
        (See below)

        Closing
        - Use “Yours sincerely” if you are sending the letter to a named person, otherwise use “Yours faithfully”.
        - Add a few blank lines and finish with your name.
        - The space between is used for your signature once printed.

        Arrow Format and Main Body

        The letter itself needs to cover 4 main areas. Remember, it isn’t meant to duplicate the CV but should be treated as a “Trailer” for the “Main Event”.

        Paragraph 1 – Why you are writing
        - You want to try & get the interest of the Employer.
        - You should start the letter with the reason for writing and indicate the position that you are applying for along with how you heard of the vacancy.
        - This is also a good place to tell then why you are interested in the position and convey a genuine interest in the company.
        - The company website will be a good source of background information.

        Step 1 - Introduce yourself
        Some examples:
        • “I have just graduated from…”
        • Try to avoid the “My name is …” approach – it isn’t particularly elegant and makes you sound like Eminem.
        • If you are writing this letter having spoken to someone on the telephone or at a fair, say so in your letter. This could even be your opening sentence e.g. “Following on from my recent conversation with Joe Bloggs, I am pleased to enclose a copy of my CV as requested”.

        Step 2 - Explain why you are making this application
        - This will need to cover both the company and the job/function for which you are applying. - Having researched the company and job (you have, haven’t you?) explain why you want this job.
        - Make it a personal statement about you and why you want them to say “yes” to this application. Maybe start with an “I” statement.

        Some examples: :
        • “I’ve always wanted to be a Chartered Account and the reputation of your company and its training is well known”
        Or
        • “I met one of your recruitment team at your company’s presentation and the company and its approach to work is just what I’m looking for”
        Or
        • “I’m looking for a career switch into Advertising and my research shows you are one of the best”
        Or
        • “I’m looking to continue to my career as a research chemist and working for XYZ Plc, with its tremendous investment program in my field of interest, is to me a natural choice”

        - Whether you start by talking about your interest in the organization or in the job depends on what attracted you to apply in the first place. Structure your letter according to what “did it” for you.

        - As well as interest, you need to demonstrate an understanding of the job you are applying for – and the company too. Show you have done your research properly. Don’t make statements that state the blindingly obvious e.g. “you are a large multinational firm with 30 offices worldwide”. Instead, say WHY that matters to you, and what it is about them that makes you want to work for them.

        - Remember the aim is to make your letter stand out from the rest. Provide a personal statement with an element of passion and drive and this should encourage the reader to want to read on with a positive frame of mind. However, don’t make it artificial – it has to be real. It should also sound like you have written it – don’t feel you have to pack it with long words and complicated rhetoric if that is not your personal style. Express yourself simply and clearly.

        Paragraph 2 – What you can offer them
        - Here you describe briefly why you think you should be considered for the role.
        - You should summaries relevant qualifications for the position along with your experience and skills.
        - Also give a brief example of one or two jobs you have worked in that relate to the position.
        - Try to make sure that it is not just a list of what is in your CV but is individualized to the job application.

        Step 3 – You need to do a bit of self selling

        Some examples: :
        • "I believe my research project demonstrates my special technical knowledge in the filed as well as managing a team against very difficult timescale and technical difficulties"

        Or

        • "My work as Shift supervisor at Mac Burgers clearly shows I can lead and motivate a team and achieve results. I've enjoyed this work and really feel I can now move on and make a difference and build a career in your company "

        Paragraph 3 – Summary and next step
        Sept 4- Ending the letter
        - Refer to your enclosed CV and also ask for the interview.
        - Conclude the letter with a friendly "I look forward to hearing from you…"
        Or, you may at this point suggest that you will be making a follow up call.
        - It is also important that you thank the reader for their time and consideration and tell them that you look forward to hearing from them.

        And now consider these points on style

        • Don’t' be afraid to put in anything you feel will make you stand out providing it is relevant of course.
        • Be positive and upbeat. Try to avoid negative information about yourself e.g. phrases like "Although I have no experience in this sector..."! Instead refer to the skills you do have that are transferable and relevant to this sector! As with your CV, you need to use language in a positive way and phrase things in the active tense rather than passively. Action verbs work just effectively in a cover letter as they do in a CV
        • A word of caution- humor is often a poor traveler and it is often best avoided in covering letters. Remember, you want to be taken seriously and not as potential officer joker.

        Idea Disclosing Personal Information

        • Although the general rule is to avoid referring to “negative” information in your covering letter, there may be situations when it is appropriate to do so.
        • For example, if you are applying to an employer who is strict about A-level results but you have a good reason for why your marks were low (e.g. serious illness during your exams), you may want to mention this in your covering letter.
        • There might also be situations where you may want to mention a disability but again, this could be raised at a later date if applicable e.g. if you need wheelchair access to attend an interview. The Careers Service has a specialist adviser for students with disabilities if you want to discuss this with someone.
        • The secret is to present this information in a positive light, perhaps as evidence to demonstrate your particular drive, resilience and so on.
        • Remember the company is not interested in your life story. What they need to see is whether or not you have what they need. Do not dwell on it and remember to focus on all the positive things you have going for you!

        Idea Tips to remember

        • Covering letters are not easy to write. Try brainstorming some ideas first before trying to construct full paragraphs.
        • Where possible, write to a named individual.
        • Make the letter as personal as possible…
        “Dear Sir/Madam” is OK – finished with “Yours faithfully”
        “Dear Mr. Smith or Ms Jones is better – finished with “Yours sincerely”
        “Dear Caroline” might be OK if you have met someone before or spoken with them on the phone and are sure that this familiarity is appropriate. Finish with “Yours sincerely” or “Yours truly”. If in doubt, stick to Dear Ms Jones.
        • It is worth spending some time experimenting with different versions before adopting a style that suits both you and the organization you are writing to.
        • In terms of the physical appearance of your letter, print it on the same paper as your CV. Use nice quality paper for both and sign your letter by hand. Use the same font face as for your CV so they look consistent as a “package”.
        • Try to keep your letter to one side of A4 word processed text, printed on good quality plain paper, ensuring that the layout looks balanced.
        • Use a legible font (e.g. Arial, Times) with a minimum size of 11 point.
        • Sell yourself and emphasis your enthusiasm for, and commitment to, the opportunity or profession.
        • Aim for a maximum of three paragraphs. Remember simple is best.
        • Use upbeat and positive language and avoid exaggerated statements.
        • Ensure there are no spelling, grammar, or punctuation mistakes
        • Always use black ink.
        • Express yourself with confidence.
        • Your CV or Resume cover letter should be tailored specifically for each application.
        • Be concise and to the point. Try to avoid repeating what's in your CV.

        Idea Applying by Email

        - If you intend to send your CV by email then in the body of the email is where you need to reproduce your cover letter.
        - Email can be an informal method of communication – do not make the mistake of making your covering email informal.
        - The content should be the same as if you had sent it on paper.
        - Remember that not all email systems are the same - you may be able to format the email message at your end but it may not come out looking quite the same when it arrives at the other!

        Idea One final point

        - Each cover letter needs to be individually written for that particular company. Of course, your own details, degree results as well as your skills, experiences and attributes are the same, but you do need to tailor your cover letter to each particular company and/or job, as well as give the right emphasis to those particular skills etc the company specifically mentions.
        - Trying to produce a “typical cover letter” into which you simply paste in the changes in address runs the risk of making your letter too bland and impersonal. It will not make you stand out.
        - If you’ve followed all this advice then the reader ought to be eagerly anticipating your CV. If not… all that effort… and never even read!

        3- How to Organize an Elective Abroad

        المصدر : مشاركة من منتديات الدراسة في الخارج.
        تنسيق HTML : رندة مسرابي

        كيف تنظم ستاجاً في الخارج.
        من المعروف أن العشرات من طلاب الطب البشري يسافرون سنوياً إلى أمريكا وأوروبا لأداء أحد ستاجاتهم ، إلا أن القليل منهم يعود بالفائدة المرجوة ، والسبب واضحٌ وهو نقص الإعداد و التخطيط.سنحاول من خلال الملاحظات و الإيضاحات التالية المساعدة في تكوين فكرة موضوعية عن الستاجات في الخارج ، مما سيساعد الطلاب إن شاء الله على تلافي أخطاء من سبقهم و العودة بالنتيجة المرجوة.

        1. فكرة عمل ستاج في الخارج ماالهدف منها؟
          • أداء الستاج في الخارج يجب أن يكون ضمن خطة متكاملة ومنهجٍ مدروس للتخصص خارج القطر وليس لمجرد السفر وأداء الستاج ، لذلك من أهم الأهداف هو التعرف على النظام الطبي ونظام التخصص في البلد المعني وإقامة علاقات مع الأطباء والمشرفين مما سيكون له أثرٌ هام في قرارك اختيار بلد التخصص وفي مساعدتك على الحصول على ذلك التخصص.
          • تحسين اللغة الإنكليزية .
          • تجاوز ما يسمى بالـ (Cultural Shock) ، وستدرك أهمية ذلك عندما تقابل الأطباء المتخرجين الذين سافروا للتخصص من دون هذه الخطوة.
          • تحسين المهارات السريرية والعملية بالدرجة الأولى وتطبيق المعلومات الطبية التي يزخر بها دماغ كل طالب طب في كليتنا.
          • إعطاء صورة مشرقة قدر الإمــكان عن بلدك وهذا يجب أن يكون من قائمة أولوياتك.
        2. ما هو الوقت المتاح لي فيه السفر لأداء الستاج؟
        3. هناك مرحلتان بإمكانك أن تسافر فيهما لأداء الستاج :المرحلة الأولى: العطلة الصيفية التي تلي السنة الرابعة.المرحلة الثانيـة: الممتدة من بداية الصيف التالي للسنة الخامسة وحتى منتصف السنة السادسة تقريباً.في الحالة الأولى لن تحسب لك فترة التدريب التي اتبعتها في الخارج عوضاً عن ستاجات الكلية في السنتين الرابعة والخامسة بينما تحتسب في الحالة الثانية كتعويض عن الستاج الموافق للستاج الذي قمت به في السنة السادسة.وهنا ينصح من يريد أن يسافر مرة واحدة أن يؤجلها إلى ما بعد السنة الخامسة ( الخيار الثاني) لأن معلوماته وممارسته ستكون أفضل بشكلٍ واضح ، أما من عنده القدرة والرغبة على السفر لأكثر من مرة فمن المفيد أن يذهب أيضاً في صيف السنة الرابعة.

        4. ما هي البلاد المتاح أداء الستاج فيها؟
        5. معظم دول العالم تقبل طلاب الطب الأجانب لأداء فترة من التدريب في مشافيها ، ولكن الشروط تختلف من بلدٍ لآخر. على أية حال معظم المعلومات المتوفرة عند طلاب كليتنا بناءً على خبرة من سبق هي عن أمريكا وبريطانيا ولكن هذا لا يعني عدم إمكانية إجراء الستاج في دولٍ أخرى ، ويجب التذكير هنا بأنه من المفضل اختيار البلد الذي تخطط للتخصص فيه.

        6. كيف تتم المراسلة للحصول على الستاج ؟
        7. مع اتساع استعمال الانترنت أصبح من السهل جداً الوصول إلى مواقع الجامعات ومعرفة الشروط والأنظمة الخاصة بكلٍ منها، ولتسهيل الحصول على تلك المعلومات سندرج وصلتين لموقعين مختلفين الأول فيه عناوين جميع الجامعات ومدارس الطب في بريطانيا والثاني وهو الأكثر تخصصاً فيه عناوين الجامعات ومدارس الطب في أمريكا لكن مع معلومات مفصلة عن الستاجات لطلاب الطب الأجانب وخيارات بحث متقدمة: الجامعات البريطانية:

          www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/careers/doctors/schools.html

          الجامعات الأمريكية:

          www.services.aamc.org/eec/student.cfm

          إذا واجهت صعوبات بالوصول إلى الوصلة خاصة بالنسبة للجامعات الأمريكية فقم بفتح الصفحة الرئيسية للموقع www.aams.org ثم قم بالبحث من خلال خيار البحث ، أو قم باستخدام محرك البحث Google واطلب منه البحث عن aams + elective فسيعطيك صفحة فيها خيار Extramural Elective Compendium ، اضغط عليها وستصل للوصلة المطلوبة.

          إذا كنت تجد صعوبة في ذلك فبإمكانك زيارتة How to Find an American University و تنزيل الملف الرفق لشرح أكثر تفصيلاً و وضوحاً مرفقاً بالصور.

          بالنسبة لموقع الجامعات الأمريكية فستجد عليه مباشرةً وصلاتٍ للصفحات المتعلقة بالستاجات للطلاب الأجانب ضمن موقع كل جامعة ، بينما بالنسبة لموقع الجامعات البريطانية فستجد وصلة لموقع الجامعة ومن ثم عليك أن تجد الصفحة التي تتعلق بالموضوع وذلك من خلال البحث داخل الموقع والكلمات الأشيع المستخدمة للدلالة على الستاجات للطلاب الأجانب هي:Visiting elective student – visiting clerkship student – overseas student –international student

          بعد الوصول للصفحة التي تتحدث عن هذا الموضوع ، ستجد خيارين أمامك : فإما أن تجد الـ Application جاهزة على الموقع و بإمكانك تنزيلها وطباعتها، أو ستجد عنوان البريد الإلكتروني للشخص المعني بتنسيق تلك الستاجات وعندها سترسل له E-mail لتطلب منه إرسال الـApplication لك ، وبالتالي سيقومون بإرسالها إليك إما كملف إلكتروني أو كرسالة بريدية لعنوانك البريدي .
          بإمكانك الإطلاع على نموذجٍ من تلك الرسالة بالإطلاع على
          الملف المرفق مع هذه التعليمات.

        8. متى أبدأ المراسلة ؟
        9. على الرغم من أن لكل جامعةٍ مواعيد خاصةٌ بها ، إلا أنه وبشكل عام تعتبر مدة 12 شهر قبل الفترة التي ترغب فيها بأداء الستاج فترةً مثالية لمعظم الجامعات في بريطانيا. والأمر مختلفٌ كثيراً في أمريكا لكن على أية حال عليك البدء بمراسلة الجامعات الأمريكية على الأقل قبل 6 أشهر.

        10. هل تطلب الجامعة رسوماً لقاء الستاج؟
        11. معظم الجامعات لا تطلب رسوماً على الستاج ، لكن معظمها أيضاً يطلب ما يسمى برسم التسجيل أو رسم الاستمارة (Application fees – Registration fees) ، وهذا يتراوح بين 40- 275 جنيه استرليني بالنسبة لبريطانيا و مابين 50 – 500 دولار بالنسبة لأمريكا . أو أكثر في بعض الأحيان.وهنا يجب الانتباه إلى أن بعض تلك الرسوم تطلبُ بشكلٍ غير مرتجع ( Non- refundable) بينما بعضها يطلب بشكل مرتجع ( Refundable) تعيده إليك الجامعة بعد الانتهاء من الستاج.

        12. كيف أستطيع أن أملأ الاستمارة أو الـ Application؟
        13. غالباً تكون التعليمات المرفقة واضحة وسهلة، إلا أنه وبشكل عام تتألف الـApplication عادةً من ثلاثة أقسام:

          • قسمٌ يملؤه الطالب وفيه معلوماتٌ عن بطاقته الشخصية و الستاجات التي يرغب في أدائها ومعلومات أخرى متنوعة.
          • قسمٌ يطلبُ تعبئتهُ من قبل عمادة الكلية ، بعد انتهائك من تعبئة القسم الأول ـ أرفقه بالقسم الثاني الذي يتطلب تعبئته وختمه من الكلية إضافة إلى ورقةٍ عليها الحياة الجامعية للطالب يتم الحصول عليها مباشرة بطلبٍ إلى شؤون الطلاب في الطابق الأرضي ، احمل هذه الأوراق الثلاثة إلى مكتب عميد الكلية في الطابق الرابع ، حث تقوم سكرتيرة العميد بتعبئته وختمه لك خلال يومٍ أو يومين على الأكثر.
          • قسمٌ ثالث يتعلق باللقاحات والسجل الطبي للطالب ، وعادةً يطلب تعبئته وختمه من قبل طبيب الأسرة ، ومن الممكن الحصول على تواريخ اللقاحات من السجل الطبي للطالب أو من كتاب الأطفال أو بالاستعانة بالملف المرفق هنا والذي يبين تواريخ اللقاحات لطالب من مواليد / / 1981 بإمكانك تغيير التواريخ بما يتناسب مع تاريخ ميلادك.

          ملاحظة هامة عن تعبئة الـApplication : لا تكن شديد التردد والحيرة في تعبئة الإستمارة فالأمر بسيطٌ جداً وإذا صادفك أي التباسٍ ما عليك إلا أن تبعث برسالة إلكترونية E-mail إلى المسؤول عن الستاجات في الجامعة المعنية تطلب فيه الإجابة على التساؤلات التي تواحهها ، وستجد أن هذه الطريقة أكثر جدوى وأقل هدراً للوقت من سؤال الطلاب الذين سبقوك في تلك الخطوة . المهم أنه ليست مشكلةً أو عيباً أن تسأل حتى أصدقائك لكن فكر قليلاً قبل أن تسأل عن كل شيْ ولا تكن كثير الحيرة والتردد.

        14. ما هي الستاجات المتاحة التي يمكنني عملها في الخارج ؟
        15. إذا كنت مسافراً في صيف السنة الرابعة فبإمكانك اختيار أي ستاج ، أما في السنة السادسة فيجب أن تكون متأكداً من موافقة القسم على تعويض ستاجك هنا واحتساب ستاجك في الخارج . غالباً ما يقبل أقسام الباطنة والجراحة وبدرجة أقل الأطفال والتوليد تعويض الستاج في الخارج لكن إذا أردت أداء واحدٍ من هذين الستاجين الأخيرين أو أياً من الستاجات الأخرى ( عينية – أذنية ... ) فيجب التأكد من موافقة رئيس القسم. على أية حال وحسب تجارب الشباب الذين خاضوا التجربة من قبل فإن ستاج الباطنة هو الستاج الأكثر فائدةً لأنه بإمكانك حتى خلال ستاج الباطنة التعرف على بقية الإختصاصات ( مثلاً حضور مختلف العمليات، المداومة في الإسعاف ، زيارة العيادات الخارجية للأقسام المختلفة بعد أخذ موافقة المشرف عليها ... )

        16. ما هي مدة الستاج ؟
        17. معظم الجامعات في بريطانيا وأمريكا تحدد مدة الستاج بشهرين على الأكثر ، على أية حال إذا كنت راغباً بفترةٍ أطول من ذلك فما عليك إلا أن تراسل أكثر من جامعة.

        18. ما هي الخطوات التي يجب اتخاذها للاستعداد للستاج ؟
        19. من المهم الإدراك أن الإستعداد للستاج هامٌ بقدر أهمية الستاج نفسه .......

          الإستعداد علمياً:

          قبل الستاج :

          • ليكون ستاجك ناجحاً يجب أن تكون ملماً تماماً بطريقة أخذ القصة المرضية الكاملة والفحص السريري الكامل ، ويمكنك الإستفادة في ذلك من أي كتاب فحص سريري ( مثلا ًيمكنك الإستفادة من كتاب Physical Examination ) وإذا لم تستطع أن تطبق ما تقرأه في المشفى فما عليك إلا أن تتعاون مع زملائك للتدرب على ذلك سويةً وقد جربت هذه الطريقة بنجاح حيث تتم دراسة الجزء النظري من الفحص السريري وأخذ القصة المرضية ثم يقوم أحد الطلاب بتمثيل حالةٍ مرضيةٍ معينة بينما يقوم الباقي باستجوابه وفحصه فحصاً كاملاً و باللغة الإنكليزية طبعاً.
          • يجب أن تكون ملماً إلى حدٍ ما ببعض مهارات التواصل مع المرضى باللغة الإنكليزية خاصة طرح الأسئلة والتعليمات للمريض وهنا يمكن الإستفادة من الأسئلة الموجودة في الــــPhysical Examination ، كما يمكن الإستفادة من كتاب آخر اسمه ( English In Medicine) وهو متوفر في مكتبة المركز الثقافي البريطاني ( British Council.)
          • يجب أن يكون عندك تصور محدد ويفضل مكتوب لما تريد أن تتعلمه في الستاج ، لأنه وبالرغم من وجود برنامج محدد للستاج إلا أنه بإمكانك تعلم مختلف المهارات التي تشعر أنك بحاجة إليها ، مثلاً :
            لديك نقطة ضعف في فحص المريض العصبي وفي الإصغائيات في القلبية .... إلخ ، دون كل ذلك لأنك ستجد العديد من الفرص كي تتعلم ما ينقصك.كما أنه بتحديدك ما تريد تتجنب كثيراً من هدر الوقت حيث أنه ستضيف جدولك الخاص إلى برنامج الستاج لتجد نفسك مشغولاً تماماً ولتحقق أقصى فائدة ممكنة من الستاج.
          • المداومة في قسم الإسعاف لعدة أيام قبل الستاج ستساعدك كثيراً حيث أنها تعطيك الفرصة لتطبيق ما تعلمته من فحص سريري وأخذ القصة المرضية ، كما تمكنك من التدرب على بعض المهارات اليدوية التي يجب أن تكون ملماً بها تماماً ليتسنى لك تطبيقها هناك مثل سحب الدم وخياطة الجروح أحياناً،
            عدا عن ذلك هذا يجعلك في تماس مباشر مع المرضى مما يعطيك ثقة بنفسك لا يستهان بها.
          • اللغة: من المهم جداً أخذ عامل اللغة بالاعتبار، وخلال الستاج ستجد أنه من أكثر العوامل المسببة للعوائق التي تواجهها ، ومن المهم أن يكون الطالب متبعاً لدورةٍ أو دورتين على الأقل في اللغة الإنكليزية قبل السفر. على أية حال من المهم أيضاً تطوير مهارتي الإصغاء( ( Listening والتكلم
            ( Speaking ) وبشكلٍ خاص قبل فترة الستاج مباشرةً، ولتطوير المهارة الأولى ينصح بتكثيف الاستماع لمصادر مختلفة مثل الـ BBC- CNN، الأفلام الأجنبية غير المترجمة ... إلخ، كما ينصح لتطوير المهارة الثانية الإتـفاق مع زميل لك أو أكثر على التحدث باللغة الإنكليزية لفترة من الوقت.

          خلال الستاج :

          • حاول قدر الإمكان الإلتزام بالجدول المحدد لك (Time Table)، وسنورد مثالاً على اسبوع نموذجي من أسابيع ستاج الباطنة بشكلٍ عام . قد تجد ذلك صعباً خاصة إذا كنت ممن لم يتعود على الإلتزام بدوامٍ طويل ، لكن الحصول على الفائدة المرجوة يتطلب الإلتزام بالبرنامج ، ولا تشعر بالصدمة إذا لم تجد أحداً يبحث عنك ويتابع التزامك بالدوام لأنه غالباً مايكون الوضع هكذا ، بل عليك أن تكون مدفوعاً بمبادرتك الذاتية و إلا فلن تتمكن من تحقيق الفائدة المرجوة.
          • استفد من الإمكانيات المتاحة في الجامعة ( إنترنت – كومبيوتر – مكتبة – خدمات إدارية ... )
          • يجب أن تكون دوماً متحمساً وتبحث عن الفرص المختلفة المتوافرة في المشفى الذي تتدرب فيه ، وستجد أن كثيراً من هذه الفرص متاحة وما عليك إلا أن تكون واعياً ومهتماً وإسأل باستمرار الطلاب والمشرفين عن مثل تلك الفرص التي قد تكون:
            دورة إسعافات أولية(first Aid – Life support (Courses - دورات في أساسيات الـ IT في مكتبات الجامعة ،تقديم حالات سريرية من قبل الطلاب/ طلاب الدراسات العليا، لقاءات بين أطباء الأقسام المختلفة، أبحاثٌ تجرى في القسم الذي تتدرب فيه .... إلخ.
          • من المفيد بل من الضروري أن تحمل معك خلال الستاج كتاب Hand Book وستجد أنه من المفيد الرجوع إليه في كل حالةٍ تراها، ولن تشعر بأي خجلٍ في ذلك لأن كل الطلاب يقومون بذلك وهنا يمكنك الإستعانة بعدة كتب أهمها وأشهرها (Oxford Hand Book – Washinton Manual)
            ويمكنك أيضاً حمل كتاب آخر مفيد وهو كتاب ( Differential Diagnosis ) تعود إليه خاصةً في قسم الإسعاف خلال المناوبات حيث تشاهد كثيراً من الحالات ويطلب منك وضع تشخيصٍ تفريقي وهنا تبدأ المشكلة التي تعودنا عليها حيث يفكر الطالب في عشرات التشاخيص النادرة وينسى الأساسيات ، هذا الكتاب يساعد كثيراً في حل المشكلة والتفكير بطريقةٍ منطقيةٍ بسيطة للوصول للتشخيص.
            وتذكر دوماً ألا ترهق نفسك بتعقيدات كل حالةٍ تمر معك فالمهم من الستاج أن تكتسب طريقة التفكير والبسيط للوصول إلى التشخيص بالإضافة لحفظ بعض المعلومات الأساسية فقط.
          • حاول أن تشارك في أي حوارٍ دائرٍ حولك في المشفى وفي السكن وغيرهما لتحسين لغتك الإنكليزية،
            خاصةً التحدث مع المرضى لأن ذلك سيعطيك خبرةً كبيرة وسيحسن لغتك بشكلٍ ملحوظ ، والبعض كان يقصد الحدائق في عطلة نهاية الأسبوع للتحدث مع المسنين.

          الإستعداد إدارياً:

          • إجراءات الحصول على الفيزا:
          • بالنسبة للسفارة البريطانية فغالباً ما تكون إجراءات الحصول على الفيزا سهلة ولا تتطلب فترة انتظارٍ طويلة بعد تقديم طلب الفيزا ، بينما الأمر أكثر صعوبةً بالنسبة للسفارة الأمريكية وعادةً يتطلب مدةً لا بأس بها من الزمن قد تتراوح من 1-2 شهر.على أية حال لا يتطلب تقديم الطلب للسفارة البريطانية موعداً مسبقاً فقط جهز أوراقك كاملةً واحملها معك إلى السفارة في اليوم الذي تريد( من الإثنين للخميس )، بينما تتطلب الفيزا الأمريكية موعداً مسبقاً لإجراء مقابلة.يمكنك زيارة موقع السفارة الأمريكية من خلال الوصلة التالية:www.damascus.usembassy.gov حيث بإمكانك الإطلاع على تعليمات التقدم لفيزا ( B1/B2 Nonimmigrant Visa )ملاحظة هامة:لا ينصح بتمديد الفيزا من داخل البلد الذي سافرت إليه إلا إذا كانت الأسباب التي تدعو لذلك قويةً جداً لأن ذلك سيحسب عليك وسيكون عاملاً مؤثراً في أية طلبات مستقبلية للحصول على الفيزا.

          • أمور إدارية أخرى يجب الاهتمام بها :
            1. بطاقة الطالب الدولية(International Student Card): تحصل من خلالها على حسومات بشكل رئيسي للتنقلات بالإضافة لحسومات أخرى كالمتاحف والمناطق الأثرية وغيرها ، ويمكن إصدارها من مركز خاص قرب مركز تعليم اللغات في الجامعة لقاء 200 ليرة سورية ولا يلزمها إلا صورة شخصية وأي شيء يثبت أنك طالب.
            2. يجب أن تقوم بكتابة السيرة الذاتية لك ( Curriculum vitae) ، وأخذها معك لأنك غالباً ستحتاجها عندما تطلب من المشرف عليك إعطائك توصية أو تقريراً بأدائك خلال الستاج ، على أية حال يجب تحضيرها لأنها ستلزم في كل مرحلة قادمة ، وسيتم إن شاء الله في المستقبل القريب على هذا الموقع عرض ملف تفصيلي لطريقة كتابة السيرة الذاتية والأمور المتعلقة بذلك.
            3. يجب أن يكون عندك نسخة واحدة على الأقل (صورة) عن كل الأوراق التي استخدمت في المراسلة ( الاستمارة التي أرسلتها للجامعة – أوراق القبول – أوراق السكن ...) ، لأنك ستحتاج لاستخدامها وستجد أنها ذات أهمية قصوى إذا فُقدت إحدى أوراقك من قبل الطرف الآخر ( الجامعة أو السكن.)
          • أمور مادية يجب الاهتمام بها:
          • بالنسبة لتكاليف المعيشة( living expenses ) وتكاليف الستاج بشكل عام : التكلفة متنوعةٌ جداً حسب ( البلد – المدينة : هل المشفى في العاصمة أم في مدينة صغيرة ؟ - هل السكن مجانيٌ أم مدفوع ؟ وإذا لم يكن مجانياً فهل هو شقة مشتركة أم سكنٌ جامعي ؟ - بعد السكن عن المشفى ومدى حاجتك لاستعمال المواصلات ؟ )ولكن وبعد سؤال نسبةٍ كبيرة من الشباب الذين سافروا لأمريكا وبريطانيا كانت التكلفة كالتالي:
            تقسم تكاليف الستاج إلى أربعة أشياء رئيسية: تذكرة الطائرة – السكن – الطعام – التنقلات.بالنسبة لأمريكا:

            1. تذكرة الطائرة ( Flight Ticket ):
            2. حسب الموسم ولكنها تتراوح بين 1000 – 1500 $ تقريباً.

            3. السكن (AccommodationSmiling
            4. السكن الجامعي مرتفع التكاليف في أمريكا حيث تتراوح تكاليف الغرفة في السكن الطلابي( Dorms ) بين 450 – 600 $ شهرياً ( وكما هو معروف فالسكن الطلابي غالباً يتألف من غرفةٍ مستقلة مع مرافق مشتركة مع باقي طلاب الطابق أو الشقة ) ، ولكن عندك خيارٌ آخر ولكن شروطه أصعب حيث يمكنك البحث عن شقة مستقلة قريبة من الجامعة (خاصةً إذا كان هناك أكثر من طالب) بنفس التكلفة ولكن مع مواصفاتٍ أعلى بكثير ، ولكن هناك مشكلتان هنا الأولى هو أن الشقق غالباً ما تُؤجرُ لمدة ثلاثة أشهر الأمر الذي قد لا يتوافق مع مدة الستاج والثانية أنك تحتاج لشخصٍ يحمل الجنسية الأمريكية أو الإقامة الدائمة ( Green Card ) لتستطيع استئجار الشقة حيث يطلب منك ما يسمى (Social Security Number # ) الذي يتوفر عند حامل الجنسية أو الإقامة.على أي حال حتى لو كان سكن الطلاب متدني المواصفات قليلاً لكن فترة الإقامة القصيرة وطول فترة الدوام في المشفى ستعينك على تجاوز ذلك بسهولة إن شاء الله.

            5. التنقلات (Transportation):
            6. التكلفة هنا تعتمد بشكل كبير على نمط السكن الذي تقيم فيه وهنا يمكن الحديث عن ثلاثة أنماط :

              • في الحالة الأولى إذا كنت تسكن في السكن الجامعي ضمن الجامعة ( Inside The Campus ) فليس هناك مشكلة حيث ستقتصر مصايف التنقلات على التنقلات خارج المشفى والتي هي شخصيةٌ بالدرجة الأولى.
              • <في الحالة الأولى إذا كنت تسكن في السكن الجامعي ضمن الجامعة ( Inside The Campus ) فليس هناك مشكلة حيث ستقتصر مصايف التنقلات على التنقلات خارج المشفى والتي هي شخصيةٌ بالدرجة الأولى.

              • في الحالة الثانية إذا كنت تسكن بسكن طلاب ولكن خارج الجامعة ( Outside The Campus ) فهذا يعتمد على الجامعة إذا كانت كبيرةً ومعروفة فستزودك ببطاقة خاصة تتيح لك استعمال الباصات للتنقل مجاناً وإلا فعليك تحمل المصاريف التي تقدر بـ 60- 75 $ شهرياً.
              • في الحالة الثالثة وهي حالة نادرة إذا كان الستاج في مشفىً في محيط المدينة أو في الريف فيجب عندها التفكير جدياً استئجار سيارة وهو أمرً مكلفٌ لمن لا يملك الجنسية ( وسطياً 500 $ شهرياً + 300 $ تأمين) ، وهنا يلزمك رخصة قيادةٍ للسيارة ، ويمكنك الحصول على هذه رخصة قيادة دولية للسيارة من مكتب نادي سوريا الدولي لسيارات قرب ساحة المحافظة لقاء 500 ل.س ، كما أنك تستطيع التقدم للحصول على رخصة قيادة أمريكية ( يلزمها فحص نظري وعملي وحوالي 100 $ ) في ولايات محددة لا تطلب منك Social Security Number مثل: Texas – New Mexico ، وهذا قد يفيدك مستقبلاً إذا كنت تريد الإختصاص في أمريكا حيث ستكون معك تلك الشهادة على الأقل لمدة عامين أو أكثر قبل أن تبدأ الإختصاص من دون أن تسجل عليك مخالفات مما يخفض بشكلٍ ملحوظ قيمة التأمين على السيارة التي قد تقتنيها في المستقبل خلال فترة اختصاصك.

              ولكن معظم الحالات هي من النمط الأول والثاني ، أي التي لا يلزمك فيها استئجار سيارة.أما بالنسبة للتنقلات بين المدن فهي متفاوتة بشكلٍ كبير ولكن يمكنك السفر بالطائرة غالباً بأسعارٍ رخيصة ( Cheap Flight) إذا كنت مخططاً لرحلتك مسبقا خاصةً إذا كانت المدينة بعيدة ً وهناك مواقع محلية كثيرة على الانترنت تعطيك التفاصيل ، كما يمكنك استعمال الحافلات
              (Greyhound) أو القطار ( Amtrack ) والأسعار متباينةً كثيراً حسب بعد المدينة التي تود السفر إليها، ويمكنك الحصول على تفاصيلٍ أدق عن التكاليف والمواعيد من خلال الموقعين التاليين:www.amtrack.com www.greyhound.com

            7. الطعام ( Food ):
            8. قدرت التكلفة وسطياً في الشهر بــ 300 – 500 $.

            وباختصار فإن ستاج لمدة شهرين في أمريكا يكلف تقريباً 3000 $.

            بالنسبة لبريطانيا:

            1. تذكرة الطائرة ( Flight Ticket ):
            2. تقريباً ثابتة (على الخطوط السورية) حوالي 23000 ليرة سورية.

            3. السكن ( AccommodationSmiling
            4. السكن في بريطانيا متباين كثيراً ولكنه بشكل عام مرتفع التكاليف
              خاصة في المدن الرئيسية مثل لندن ، القليل جداً من الجامعات توفر للطالب سكناً مجانياً ولكن الشائع أن تقوم الجامعة بتأمين سكن للطالب إما في السكن الجامعي ( وهذا أقل تكلفةً ) أو في غرفةٍ مع عائلةٍ ( Host Family وهو شائع خاصةً في لندن.)وفي كلتا الحالتين تتراوح التكلفة ما بين 250- 350 جنيه استرليني في الشهر.

            5. التنقلات (Transportation ):
            6. التنقلات في بريطانيا بشكل عام مرتفعة التكاليف، وتعتمد التكاليف طبعاً على بعد وقرب السكن عن الجامعة ولكن بشكلٍ عام هناك وسيلتا تنقل رئيسيتين ضمن المدينة وهما إما الـمترو ( UnderGround) والباصات في لندن وإما الباصات والدراجات الهوائية في المدن الأخرى !! إذا كنت في لندن فستستعمل المترو بشكل رئيسي وهذا يكلف وسطياً 40 – 50 جنيه شهرياً أما إذا كنت في مدنٍ أخرى فإما أن تستعمل الدراجة الهوائية كوسيلةٍ رئيسية للتنقل ( يمكنك شراء دراجة مستعملة بحالة جيدة بحوالي 40 جنيهاً، ويمكنك بيعها ثانية عند انتهاء ستاجك ) أو أن تشتري تذكرة أسبوعية أو شهريةً للباص وهذا يكلف حوالي 30 جنيهاً شهرياً.بالنسبة للتنقل بين المدن فهناك وسيلتا تنقل : القطار وهو مرتفع التكلفة ولكن يمكنك أن تخفض هذه التكلفة بشكلٍ كبير من خلال شراء البطاقة مسبقاً (In Advance ) وهذا يتطلب منك تخطيط رحلتك باكراً ويمكنك الحصول على تفاصيل الرحلات بالقطار من خلال الموقع التالي : www.nationalrail.co.uk كما يمكنك التنقل بين المدن بالباص ( Coach) وهذا أقل تكلفةً لكن قد يتطلب وقتاً أطول ، وكما في حالة القطار يمكنك الإستفادة من الحجز المبكر كما يمكنك الإستفادة من بعض العروض التي يعلن عنها بين الفينة والأخرى، و الموقع التالي يعطيك كافة التفاصيل المتعلقة بالرحلات والعروض الخاصة:www.gobycoach.com

            7. الطعام ( Food ):
            8. تتفاوت التكلفة كثيراً فيما إذا كنت من رواد المطاعم أو أنك تقوم بتهيئة طعامك بنفسك ففي الحالة الأولى تحتاج من 200- 250 جنيه شهرياً بينما قد تكفيك 100-150 جنيه في الحالة الثانية خاصة إذا كنت في مدنٍ غير العاصمة لندن ( في هذه الحالة يمكنك الإستفادة من التخفيضات على الأطعمة في السوبرماركات الكبيرة كل يوم في نهاية الدوام مساءً أو على الأطعمة التي قاربت فترة صلاحيتها على الإنتهاء !! )
              p.one

              وباختصار فإن ستاج لمدة شهرين في بريطانيا يكلف تقريباً 2000 $

              هذه التكاليف لاتتضمن تكاليف السياحة والمصاريف غير المنظورة ، ولكن بإمكان الطالب أن يحسب تكلفة سفره بدقة بعد حصوله على القول وتكاليف السكن والتفاصيل المختلفة الأخرى.

            بالنسبة للتكلفة بإمكان الطالب أن يضع أمواله في حساب خاص في البنك( Account) ثم يقوم البنك بإصدار بطاقة خاصة له يتم من خلالها صرف النقود من خلال أجهزة الصرف الآلي المنتشرة في كل مكان أو في أي محلٍ أو سوبرماركت أو مطعم .... إلخ تدعى هذه البطاقة Debit Card ( وهي شيْء مختلفٌ عن الـ Credit Card وهذا يجب الانتباه له عند فتح الحساب ) حيث أن الأولى تسمح لك بسحب المبلغ الذي تريد من حسابك الشخصي في البنك ( على قدر المبلغ الذي تضعه في البنك ) ولا يتقاضى البنك عمولات على عمليات السحب التي تتم من خلال هذه البطاقة ، بينما الثانية بطاقة إئتمان تخولك سحب مبلغٍ معين كل يوم حتى لو تجاوز ذلك مقدار حسابك في البنك ( أي أنها تسمح لك بالإستدانة من البنك ) لكن البنك هنا يتقاضى عمولة مختلفةً من بنكٍ لآخر على عمليات السحب التي تتم من خلال البطاقة، وفتح حسابٍ في البنك يجنب مخاطر الحمل المستمر لمبلغٍ كبير من المال.

            بالنسبة لأمريكا كان فتح حسابٍ في البنك ميسراً لكل الشباب الذين تم سؤالهم والبنوك المحلية في أمريكا الأوسع انتشاراً هي ( ( America one- Bank one ، أما بالنسبة لبريطانيا كان الأمر أكثر صعوبةً ولكن الشباب الذين توجهوا لبنوك محليةٍ أو متوسطة مثل بنوك Nat Wes t- barclays) ) استطاعوا فتح حساباتٍ هناك بسهولة.

          • أشياءٌ صغيرة لكنها مهمة :
            1. من الأشياء الهامة تحيد أوقات الصلاة واتجاه القبلة، لذلك يُنصح باصطحاب بوصلة معك ، كما أنه يمكنك الحصول على اتجاه القبلة وأوقات الصلاة في أي مكانٍ كنت من خلال موقع www.islamicfinder.org

            وذلك بوضع رمز المنطقة التي ستقيم فيها، كما أن هذا الموقع يعطيك عناوين المراكز الإسلامية القريبة.

          • من الأشياء الهامة أيضاً أن تحمل معك ما يلي : صور شخصية – وصلة كهرباء (- (Switcher
            حقيبة – مظلة – مريول أبيض ( بعض المشافي تطلب أن يكون قصيراً: في أمريكا غالبية المشافي تطلب أن يكون كذلك ) – سماعات طبية – كتاب Hand Book طبي ( Oxford) مثلاً أو غيره – ساعة منبه – الأدوية الأساسية.
          • بالنسبة للاتصالات ( Communications ) فهناك نوعان:الاتصالات ضمن الدولة التي سافرت إليها ( غالباً ما تستعمل الهاتف المحمول ):إما أن تشتري خط محمول ( Contract ) وهو أقل تكلفةً لكن يتطلب أن كون عندك إقامة
            ( بإستطاعتك أن تستعيره من أحد معارفك ثم تدفع له التكلفة ) ، أو أن تشتري بطاقة مؤقتة للمحمول
            ( Pay as you go ).
            في الحالة الثانية تكلف البطاقة 20- 25 جنيه استرليني في بريطانيا ( تشحن البطاقة ببطاقات شحن تباع في كل المحلات تقريباً بقيمٍ متنوعة 10- 20 جنيه ...إلخ ) ، ومن المهم أن يكون الخط الذي تنتقيه من نفس الشركة التي اشترى منها الأشخاص الذين ستتصل بهم دورياً لأن الاتصالات رخيصة من خلال نفس الشبكة لكنها مرتفعة التكاليف من شركة لأخرى ، من أفضل الشركات في بريطانيا وأشيعها
            ( Vodafone – O2 – T-Mobile ) ، طبعاً لا تنسى أن تأخذ جهازك المحمول معك.أما بالنسبة لأمريكا فمن الصعب الحصول على النمط الثاني من البطاقات Pay as you go ، كما أن الحصول على الخط الدائم يتطلب مرةً أخرى الـ Social Security Number ، وإذا استطعت استعمال ذلك الرقم من خلال أحد معارفك أو أقاربك هناك فالشركات التي تقدم خدمات محمول جيدة هي ( Virison – Sprint) الاتصالات الدولية : الطريقة المتبعة في الإتصالات الدولية والاتصال بسورية هي غالباً عن طريق البطاقات مسبقة الدفع ،
            هذه البطاقات وسطياً تكلف 10 $ في أمريكا ( 40 دقيقة اتصال لسورية ) ، و تكلف 4 جنيه استرليني
            ( 16 دقيقة اتصال لسورية.)

        مع كل الشكر لـ : صافح كل الناس ولكن حذار أن تفقد بصمات يديك

        4-How to Write a Letter of Recommendation for Medical School Admissions


        Written by: Maamoun Salam
        Formatted by: Randa Misrabi
        Source: Internet Search.
        Last updated: Feb/5/2008.

        Importance:

        • How to get Started
        • Guidelines to Help thinking about the task of writing LORs.
        • 10 Tips for Recommenders that Supervisors Use when Writing LORs
        • Letter of Recommendation Template.
        • Sample Letter of Recommendation for Medical School:
          Sample1
          Sample2
          Sample3
          Sample4
        • Phrases to use
        1. Importance:

          As you probably know, the admissions process for medical school is extremely competitive.
          In any given year, only around 40% of the students who apply are accepted. Even students who have strong grades and standardized test scores need excellent and convincing letters of recommendation in order to help them gain admission.
          So a Letter of Recommendation is letter written by one of the medical staff that supervised on you for a period of time at your mother school of medicine or at your electives abroad( USA, UK,Germany,……..)
          It tills the readers the opinions your supervisor had about your work, your personality, your achievements, etc. …
          It might be one of the requirements you need to meet when writing for some medical schools asking for electives, and then they should be written by Doctors from your own school of medicine.
          It is one of the main goals you have to put in your mind to get when you are abroad doing clinical electives, research electives or observer ships.
          So, LOR will help you getting electives first, and the ones you get from your supervisors at electives will be a great tool to use when applying for your speciality.

        2. How to get Started:

          There are two ways to get a LOR:
          1. First, you may simply ask your supervisor at your mother school or at your elective to give you a LOR. And in this case, he will be the one who will write the LOR for you.
          2. The other way, is that some doctors says "O. I really want to help you get into medical school. Why don't you write the letter of rec and I'll sign it. That way it will emphasize exactly what you think is most important." This is the way that goes with your supervisors at your mother school.
          Please, whether you were a supervisor or a student, DO NOT say "I can't write one more word. When am I going to find the time to do it? And what on earth am I supposed to say?"
          This file helps you manage writing a LOR.
          So Relax. We'll tell you what a recommender should say.
          In fact, you can pass these tips on to your recommenders in case they prefer to write the letter themselves, but don't know what to say.

        3. Guidelines to Help thinking about the task of writing LORs

          • When a student asks you to write a letter of recommendation, know that you are not obligated to do so, and decide whether you can write enthusiastically enough to be helpful to the student.
            Since the vast majority of recommendations are positive, those that are neutral are interpreted as negative and can impair a student’s chances for admission.
            If your honest evaluation may handicap a student, and if you are uncomfortable writing favorably, you have every right to decline a student’s request for a letter.
          • In writing, please:be as specific as possible.
            General descriptions of a student’s positive qualities are not as useful as detailed examples that illustrate the student’s abilities and achievements.
            A statement like:“John is a brilliant thinker” is quite flattering, but it becomes more convincing if more details are added: “John is a brilliant thinker. For my class at Penn, he submitted an extraordinary fifty-page term paper on women and medicine in early modern England. After determining what practices were available to women in that period, he analyzed the representations of female physicians in the drama of the English Renaissance. His literary interpretation was original and elegantly written.”
          • This same level of specificity is important indiscussing non-academic matters too.
            Take, for instance, the following statement:“John’s commitment to the Narberth Ambulance Squad and to the people we serve is extraordinary.” The medical schools would find this assessment all the more useful if more information were added, such as: “John’s commitment to the Narberth Ambulance Squad and to the people we serve is extraordinary. While most of our volunteers live within the township, John commutes 45 minutes each way from Philadelphia by bus and by train for each of his shifts. And his record of attendance is perfect. This conscientious behavior is typical of the way he conducts himself.”
          • Try to compare the student to others you have known in a similar capacity.
            Statements like, “In terms of intellectual talent and drive, John ranks in the top 10% of all undergraduate students I have taught over the past seven years,”can help an admissions committee place your recommendation into a broader context.
          • Admissions committees often interpret omissions of relevant information as implicitly negative.
            For example, if you praise a student’s academic work but say nothing about him/her as a person, an admissions officer may conclude that the student is smart but socially inept.
            Therefore, it is ideal to try to touch on the following topics in any letter of recommendation:
            The student’s intellectual strengths, level of motivation, personal character, commitment to medicine, and interpersonal skills.
            Of course, your ability to comment on these topics will vary depending on how you know the student.
          • Statements that are negative or refer to problems can jeopardize a student’s candidacy.
            A comment like, “John is sometimes abrasive, but I don’t think he ever means to be rude,” or John worked hard but his exams were never quite up to snuff,”can give an admissions committee pause.
            If you have serious concerns about a student, whether of an academic or personal nature, then it may be better to ask the student to look elsewhere for a recommendation.
          • If you wish to give a thoughtful evaluation of a student’s weaknesses (as well as his/her strengths), please try to couple it with an explanation of how they will not interfere with the student’s ability to perform well in medical school.
          • Please omit references to the student’s appearance, as they trivialize the recommendation.
            If you want to discuss personal charm, which is frequently a relevant asset, describe its effect on others. For example:“John’s warmth and sense of humor naturally draw others toward him and help make him a welcome participant in our laboratory’s weekly meetings.”
          • Unless the student requests otherwise, please do not address your letter to a particular medical school.
            In most cases, your letter will be sent to every medical school to which the student applies.
          • Federal law stipulates that students can see letters of recommendation unless they waive their right in advance.
            The student’s decision as to whether your letter will be confidential or non-confidential will be designated on the form he or she gives to you.
            Most students choose to waive their right, since the medical schools generally find confidential letters to be more convincing and compelling.
            However, if you, as the author of a confidential letter, wish to show a copy to the student, that is absolutely your right.
          • Please Please type your letter of recommendation.
            You may type it directly onto the recommendation form, or print it onto a separate page and attach it to the form.

        4. 10 Tips for Recommenders that Supervisors Use when Writing LORs :

          1. Review a copy of the applicant's personal statement so that your letter of recommendation can dovetail with--not conflict with or duplicate--the rest of the application.
          2. Ask the applicant to supply you with additional information like a résumé.
          3. Describe your qualifications for comparing the applicant to other applicants.
            • I have been teaching for twenty years and have advised approximately 450 students on independent research projects over the last five years.
            • I have personally supervised ten interns every summer for the last five years plus worked with over two hundred college students in the Big Medical Center ER.
          4. Discuss how well you know the applicant.
            • I was able to get to know Mr. Doe because he made it a point to attend two of my sections every week when only one was required.
            • Ms. Smith did research in my laboratory for two years, and I worked very closely with her.
          5. Choose two to three qualities that you observed in the applicant.
            • Jane has a rare blend of top research, analytical, and interpersonal skills.
            • The combination of tenacity, willingness to help, and good communications skills found in Mr. Doe is truly unique.
          6. In discussing those qualities, support your statements with specific instances in which he or she demonstrated those attributes. Be as concrete and detailed as possible
            • He is the only student I ever had who came to all my office hours as part of a relentless--and successful--drive to master biochemistry. He was one of just ten percent in the class to receive an A.
            • Because of Jane's research and communications skills, I didn't hesitate to ask her to monitor epileptic patients and prepare electrodes to be implanted in their bilateral temporal lobes. Her quality work contributed significantly to a paper we co-authored and presented to the Society for Neuroscience.
          7. Try to quantify the student's strengths or rank him or her vis-à-vis other applicants that you have observed.
            • He was in the top 10% of his class.
            • • She has the best research skills of any person her age that I have ever supervised.
          8. Avoid generalities and platitudes.
          9. Include some mild criticism, typically the flip-side of a strength
            • The only fault I have encountered in him is his retiring nature. His modesty sometimes hides a young man of remarkable sensitivity and broad interests.
            • Occasionally, her fortitude and persistence can turn into stubbornness, but usually her good nature and level-headedness prevail.
          10. Discuss the applicant's potential in his or her chosen field.
            • I enthusiastically recommend Mr. Doe to your medical program. This well-rounded student will be a fine, compassionate doctor.
            • With her exceptional interpersonal and research skills, Ms. Smith will be an outstanding doctor and a credit to the medical school she attends.

        5. Letter of Recommendation Template


          [University Letter Head] ( If requisted by the student )

          [Sender's Name]
          [Sender's Address, Line 1]
          [Sender's Address, Line 2]
          [Sender's Phone Number]
          [Sender's Fax Number]
          [Sender's E-mail Address]

          [Today's Date]

          [Recipient's Name]
          [Recipient's Address, Line 1]
          [Recipient's Address, Line 2]

          Dear [Recipient's Name] or To Whom it May Concern,

          It is my pleasure to recommend Jane Doe for admission to [name of program] at [name of university]. I am a fifth year Ph.D. student at the University of California, Berkeley. I came to know Jane when I was her Graduate Student Instructor for Philosophy 111: Ethical Relativism, taught by Professor John Doe. The course comprised [short description of course]. Jane distinguished herself by submitting an exceptionally well researched and interesting project on ethical practices in ancient Greece. I would rank her in the top 2% of students that I have taught in the past five years in respect of her writing ability and research skills.

          Overall, Jane is highly intelligent and has good analytical skills. Her project on ethical practices in ancient Greece demonstrated her ability to come a detailed understanding of the ethical practices of another, very different culture, and to analyze the consequences of those practices for contemporary ethical theories. She gave a particularly interesting discussion of the difficult practice of infanticide, and showed both sensitivity and detachment when discussing its ethical consequences. Her overall intelligence is also reflected in her grades for the course, which were by far the best in the class.

          Jane has excellent communication skills. Her written work is both clear and concise, and interesting to read. She demonstrated her oral articulateness in the discussion sections that were an integral part of the course. Each discussion section focused on a particular ethical dilemma. Students were required analyze morally problematic situations, and to develop and argue for their own ethical views with regard to the issue in question. Jane was highly proficient in applying the course material in analyzing the problem situations. She always explained her views very concisely and gave supporting arguments that were both clear and persuasive. Jane also demonstrated good team working skills in group assignments.

          At a personal level, Jane is a well disciplined, industrious student with a pleasant personality. She went well beyond the course requirements in the quantity and quality of her project, putting in a lot of extra research and attending office hours every week. Throughout the course, Jane demonstrated great perseverance and initiative. She was not only interested in and motivated to learn the material, but put great work into assimilating it to her own experience and developing her own ideas about each ethical topic that we discussed.

          Jane is unquestionably an exceptional candidate for graduate study in Ethics. Jane's work in Philosophy 111 suggests that she would greatly benefit from the opportunities for intellectual development provided by a sustained period of graduate study. She has proven herself to have the perseverance and initiative, and the intellectual creativity necessary to complete an advanced graduate degree. I would therefore highly recommend Jane Doe. If her performance in my class is a good indication of how she would perform as a graduate student, she would be an extremely positive asset to your program.

          If I can be of any further assistance, or provide you with any further information, please do not hesitate to contact me.

          Yours Sincerely,

          [Signature]

          [Sender's Name and Title]

        6. Sample Letters of Recommendation for Medical School:


          Sample 1 (PDF – Download)


          Sample 2:

          Dear Sir or Madam:

          I am professor at Shenyang Medical University of China, and was Ms. Olivia Li's Advisor for her graduation thesis. Now I am pleased to recommend her to your Ph.D. program in Pharmaceutics.

          During the one-year period while Ms. Li worked with me on her thesis project, she impressed me deeply as a highly motivated, goal-oriented student of lively personality and creativity. She was a member of our research group for a project I was in charge of in developing a sustained release preparation for a compound herbal medicine. Since part of the compound substance was volatile, the project temporarily came to a halt. Ms. Li tackled the problem, under my direction, and thus assumed an important role in the research team. She spent many hours looking up technical literature, and proposed a novel solution with satisfying results. All along, I found Ms. Li a fine research worker of uncompromising scientific rigor and adventurous spirit. She has also demonstrated a solid educational background and a remarkable ability in lab experimentation. In addition, she has an excellent command of English, which is rather uncommon among undergraduate students. She can read professional journals and documents in English without any problem, and can carry a conversation with native speakers of English easily.

          As her teacher and former Advisor, I am proud of Ms. Li for her academic achievements. She certainly stands out as a student of great potential. Since the study and research in Pharmaceutics in China are still below international standards, I personally believe that it will be to Ms. Li's best interest to enter a graduate degree program in Pharmaceutics in a technologically advanced country. And I have no doubt that Ms. Li will take full advantage of this precious opportunity to make herself a first-rate pharmacist.

          Finally, I again recommend this student of mine, in view of her remarkable academic potential and positive personality, to your graduate program. Ms. Li has my wholehearted support.

          Yours Sincerely


          Sample 3:

          Letter of Recommendation for MIPT Alumnus (01/2000) The Biophysics Student admitted to Caltech, MIT, Princeton

          Applicant: Irina I. Ivanova
          Recommender: Dr. Petr P. Petrov

          It is my pleasure to write a letter of recommendation on behalf of Irina Ivanova. I have known her since 1998, when she started to work as a research assistant under my guidance. For more than a year I have close experience of Irina’s work and can state unequivocally that her academic and professional skills place her in the top 5% of the students I have worked with during my 50 years of work at Lebedev Physics Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences.

          Some of the main credits of Irina are her persistence and diligence sometimes even ranging with obsession with work. I will give you an example. When I first met Irina in September 1998 she was a 4th year student at MIPT and possessed a solid background in physics and mathematics, though she lacked some knowledge in biology and chemistry necessary for successful research in the field of biophysical kinetics which our laboratory is primary concerned with. It took her only a few months to read a rather large number of books and articles in Russian as well as in English and become proficient in this field. From that time she started to attend extra-curriculum lectures and seminars on different topics in biophysics (such as Biophysics of Membrane Processes, Biochemical Physics, Physical aspects of Biological Processes) at MIPT as well as at Moscow State University.

          I must admit that now Irina possesses a unique combination of solid academic knowledge in physics, chemistry, biology and mathematical methods. In scientific discussions and during colloquia Irina revealed maturity, excellent analytical thinking and clarity of thought. She often proposed original ideas and made outstanding conclusions.

          As a member of our laboratory Irina investigated permeability of erythrocyte membrane for glucose and oxygen in normal conditions and under pressure. This was an important part of our major research concerning influence of pressure on permeability of cytoplasmic membranes. Irina took part in construction of theoretical model and then carried out a lot of independent research. I should mention her accuracy and thoroughness in carrying out experiments and an ability to pay attention to nuances, which often play crucial role. Her findings were very important for confirmation of our theory of structure of cytoplasmic membrane. As a result of this work in June 1999 Irina successfully defended her thesis and got BS with Honors. Recently she has reported these results at Biophysics section of MIPT Scientific Conference. This report was made at the top level.

          In summary, Irina distinguished herself as an individual who exhibits an organized, scientific approach to research, and with a high degree of motivation, innovation and initiative, can accomplish her goals. Therefore, I evaluate Irina Ivanova as a person with high potential to carry out an advanced study in the field of biophysics and strongly recommend her for further education at Biophysics Department of California Institute of Technology.

          Petr P. Petrov, D.Sc. 12/07/99
          Professor, Lebedev Physics Institute RAS
          Leninskii prospekt 51, Moscow, Russia
          Tel. 7(095)555-5555

          Sample 4

          Sample reference letter from a hospital administrator for a Chief of Psychology Service seeking a new position: (names are fictitious)

          To Whom It May Concern:

          This serves as a letter of reference for Dr. Martin Kaye, Ph.D., who has applied for an administrative position at your company, Healthcare Systems. It is my honor to recommend Dr. Kaye. I have known him since January 1994. I became his administrative supervisor upon my employment at County Medical Center.

          Dr. Kaye has been the Chief of Psychology Service here for ten years. He has demonstrated outstanding talents in both administrative/ managerial as well as clinical practice spheres. He has a reputation as a superb manager of the mental health program at this center.

          Revealing of his administrative abilities, Dr. Kaye took the initiative to significantly enlarge the substance abuse treatment program (in-patient, day hospital, and outpatient) and the mental health outpatient clinic program. He was able to greatly increase staffing and funding for these services. Consequently the hospital was able to construct an entire new building, devoted exclusively to these programs, a few years ago. As Chief of the Psychology Service, Dr. Kaye has demonstrated uncanny skill in selection of staff and interns. These employees and trainees continue to practice successfully to this day.

          Dr. Kaye has also distinguished himself as a superb clinician, working in his profession over two decades: ten years here and ten years in a previous, similar setting. His competence, compassion and ethics as a psychologist are exemplary. In providing a broad spectrum of psychological assessment and treatment, he has more than proven his ability to lead a large and complex mental health care system.

          As a clinician, Dr. Kaye also devoted much time recently to developing an outstanding Anger Management Program, a special area of interest which has become in demand in modern American society for obvious reasons. His skill diagnosing and treating Post-traumatic Stress Disorder and other disorders is remarkable. He regularly lectures on these topics to other mental health professionals. Dr. Kaye also provides excellent consultations to inpatient psychiatry and medical-surgical units of this center.

          His commitment to education and teaching is highlighted by his early development of the Psychology Internship Program for trained individuals who have completed coursework to qualify for doctoral degrees in psychology. In this capacity he had to develop a seminar curriculum, schedule clinical assignments, arrange for supervision (by himself and others), and coordinate with their doctoral departments at several universities. The supplementary services of these interns do greatly benefit the medical center and its patients. This program had to gain official approval by the American Psychological Association; it thus affords much prestige for our medical center in addition to providing required training for future licensed psychologists.

          I am deeply impressed by Dr. Kaye and recommend him unhesitatingly. I am confident that, if selected for your vacancy, he would provide the same high level of service and commitment. If you have any questions or wish to speak further about Dr. Kaye, please feel free to call me at 443-887-2345.

          Sincerely,
          Donald Stern, Ph.D.

        7. Phrases to use:

          • Dr. XXXXX is bright, and hard working.
          • His medical knowledge is superb; His clinical evaluation, judgment, and management are all excellent above and beyond the level of his colleagues.
          • He is persistent regarding the care of his patients: to search, diagnose, treat and overall provide the best and comforting care which puts him at a level hard to achieve at his age.
          • His clinical assessment and plan is outstanding, spontaneous, expeditious, unhesitating and prompt. He is studious and diligent.
          • He keeps his knowledge up to date with the latest clinical developments through his extensive journal readings and Medline literature search.
          • Dr. XXXXX is neat, handsome, and easy going; he is courteous, and a very pleasant person to work with; he has excellent relationship with his colleagues and nursing staff.
          • I have enjoyed working with him and I am sure that he will be an asset to your program.
          • I am writing to you on behalf of Dr. XXXXX who graduated from ……University Medical School in February 2004 with a very good appreciation M.D. Degree.
          • I know Dr. XXXXX as a student in the department of at …… University Hospital.
          • I am writing to you on behalf of Dr. XXXXX who was a medical Student in the Department of at ….. university Hospital.
          • I knew him very closely when he started his clinical studies.
          • During schooling and externship in department he proved to be neat, punctual, ready to learn, hard working and caring about his patients.
          • He has an excellent character with good relationships with his colleagues, nursing staff, and patients.
          • His medical knowledge and judgment is excellent, and he is an extremely hard worker, intelligent, responsive to teaching, happy in his work and get well with the faculty. Moreover, He is very considerate, charming & cheerful pleasant young man.
          • Enthusiastic, studious and eager to learn.
          • He is a hardworking person with very good medical knowledge and judgment.
          • to be more specific I am pleased to tell you that Dr. XXXXX worked under my supervision and he shared in the evaluation and treatment of many cases such as and.
          • In addition, he shared in the evaluation and management of in-patient, out-patient cases of …… .
          • I do recommend Dr. XXXXX to receive every consideration in his future at any program he will apply for.
          • In conclusion, I highly support his application for any postgraduate position in USA.
          • For any further questions, please contact me.
          • For any further questions, please do not hesitate to contact me.